Regardless of the word "balance" being used either globally or locally in any given context, it is undoubtedly the keyword in the increasing number of environmental problems. The underlined sketch is a proper introduction to the question: Why are the environmental problems being focused on now? One particular answer can be found in a hierarchy of the main scientific problems for the 21st century as seen by the community mostly consisting of physicists and biologists. According to them, in the 21st century the world of scientific community will be occupied by the problems linked to superconductivity, quantum teleology, modelling living structures and environmental problems that are primarily expressed through the problem of climate changes. A unique characteristic of these problems is their close connection with the questions of different aspects of the existence of individual human being, i.e., the questions of technological capability, origin of the consciousness and survival on the Earth.
Based on own experience and knowledge of scientists, accumulated from their recent environmentally oriented projects, this book covers, for the first time, the complex field of fundamental scientific methodologies, modelling and measurements in environmental and linking sciences. The first part of the book comprises the following points: modelling transverse turbulent mixing in a shallow flow, new approaches in modelling of natural complex systems, modelling of forest-atmosphere interaction, modelling of the advection term in the equations of motion, dynamics of coupled interactions of natural complex systems, calculation of albedo over heterogeneous environmental interfaces and regional climate modelling. In the second part are considered vertical mixing schemes for chemical transport models, locating the source of air pollution using inverse modelling techniques, aggregating the albedo in mountain regions, deposition of heavy metals by moss biomonitoring technique, spectral UV radiation measurement and modelling, measurements of atmospheric ammonia over grassland and measurements evaporation over short vegetation.
The third part is devoted to climate change impacts and adaptation options of vulnerable agriculture in different aspects, prediction of plant diseases appearance as well as spatial climatic analogy and adaptive knowledge transfer.