Amazonian rain forest forms one of the most precious ecosystems and provides habitat for more than 50% of plant and animal species. This unique ecosystem is highly disturbed by human activities, which causes biodiversity losses. Biodiversity monitoring and conservation plays one of the most important roles of tropical environment protection. This book focuses on the assessment of species diversity and species richness in various land use systems. This book also discusses the challenges and opportunities facing the Brazilian ecotourism industry and the establishment of an eco-triple helix in the Brazilian Amazon region. Over the past two decades, the international community has become aware of the global and regional environmental risks associated with possible massive forest losses in the Brazilian Amazon. The authors of this book investigate the stochastic and dynamic relationship of land use in the Brazilian Amazon. Other chapters in this book examine the main deforestation drivers of the Brazilian Amazon rainforests, the various factors (i.e., geological age, habitat heterogeneity) that generate and maintain fish species diversity in Amazon floodplain lakes, and the causes and effects of fish contamination due to malaria control in the Brazilian Amazon.