Turbulence is a fluid regime characterised by chaotic, stochastic property changes. This includes low momentum diffusion, high momentum convection, and rapid variation of pressure and velocity in space and time. This book will give the reader new insights into this natural phenomenon that occurs everyday yet is a puzzle that is not yet fully resolved in classical physics. Climatological estimates of the turbulent exchange is provided. The basic structure of a meteorological model is also given, which uses universal laws of atmospheric physics as well as empirical relationships to calculate wind flow, temperature, humidity, vertical air mixing, and other parameters. Included in this topic is an overview of an alternative approach and artificial intelligence techniques for modelling and forecasting meteorological data. In addition, this book includes aerodynamics research and applications to fields such as offshore wind power and sailing.