Nanoscience is a rapidly evolving field of studying and working with matter on an ultra-small scale, which was invented late in the twentieth century. Learning from bio-systems in nature, scientists began to design experiments to specifically couple biology with nanofabricated materials, devices and tools. Such bio-inspired nanoscience utilises biological processes, shape, chemical and physical functionality of biomolecules for atom-levelly controllable fabrication of advanced materials with extreme precision. This book presents the current knowledge and understanding of bio-inspired nanoscience by a collection of eleven impressive chapters, covering several remarkable aspects. This book will also provide researchers in these fields with the newest developments in this rapidly evolving field for advancing research.