Current loss of biodiversity places a premium on the task of recognising and formulating proposals on potential areas for biological conservation based on scientific criteria; among these tasks, identification of hotspots has a relevant role on conservation of biodiversity. In this book, the authors discuss the application of different biogeographic methods to identify plant biodiversity hotspots. The areas recognised as such have a relevant role in plant biodiversity and are important in conservation due to their climatic conditions, the historical factors that have been involved in their evolution, and the restricted distribution of some plant taxa that inhabit them. Furthermore, the consequences of deforestation on biodiversity are substantial and widely recognised. This book predicts future land-use change, generates ecological niches of large mammals and assesses wildlife concentrations and their hotspots in different areas of the world. The evolution of the forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Atlantic forest, the present situation of its remnants, and the main strategies, conflicts and potentials for conservation are evaluated as well.