This laboratory manual is designed for an introductory majors biology course with a broad survey of basic laboratory techniques. The experiments and procedures are simple, safe, easy to perform, and especially appropriate for large classes. Few experiments require a second class-meeting to complete the procedure. Each exercise includes many photographs, traditional topics, and experiments that help students learn about life. Procedures within each exercise are numerous and discrete so that an exercise can be tailored to the needs of the students, the style of the instructor, and the facilities available.
Table of Contents
1 Scientific Methods 2 Measurements in Biology: The Metric System and Data Analysis 3 The Microscope: Basic Skills of Light Microscopy 4 The Cell: Structure and Function 5 Solutions, Acids, and Bases: The pH Scale 6 Biologically Important Molecules: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids 7 Separating Organic Compounds: Column Chromatography, Paper Chromatography, and Gel Electrophoresis 8 Spectrophotometry: Identifying Solutes and Determining Their Concentration 9 Diffusion and Osmosis: Passive Movements of Molecules in Biologal Systems 10 Cellular Membranes: Effects of Physical and Chemical Stress 11 Enzymes: Factors Affecting the Rate of Activity 12 Respiration: Aerobic and Anaerobic Oxidation of Organic Molecules 13 Photosynthesis: Pigment Separation, Starch Production, and CO2 Uptake 14 Mitosis: Replication of Eukaryotic Cells 15 Meiosis: Reduction Division and Gametogenesis 16 Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: DNA Isolation and Bacterial Transformation 17 Genetics: The Principles of Mendel 18 Evolution: Natural Selection and Morphological Change in Green Algae 19 Human Evolution: Skull Examination 20 Ecology: Diversity and Interaction in Plant Communities 21 Community Succession 22 Population Growth: Limitations of the Environment 23 Pollution: The Effect of Chemical, Thermal, and Acid Pollution 24 Survey of Bacteria: Kingdoms Archaebacteria and Bacteria 25 Survey of the Kingdom Protista: The Algae 26 Survey of the Kingdom Protista: Protozoa and Slime Molds 27 Survey of the Kingdom Fungi: Molds, Sac Fungi, Mushrooms, and Lichens 28 Survey of the Plant Kingdom: Liverworts, Mosses, and Hornworts of Phyla Hepaticophyta, Bryophyta, and Anthocerophyta 29 Survey of the Plant Kingdom: Seedles Vascular Plants of Phyla Pterophyta and Lycophyta 30 Survey of the Plant Kingdom: Gymnosperms of Phyla Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, Coniferophyta, and Gnetophyta 31 Survey of the Plant Kingdom: Angiosperms 32 Plant Anatomy: Vegetative Structure of Vascular Plants 33 Plant Physiology: Transpiration 34 Plant Physiology: Tropisms, Nutrition, and Growth Regulators 35 Bioassay: Measuring Physiologically Active Substances 36 Survey of the Animal Kingdom: Phyla Porifera and Cnidaria 37 Survey of the Animal Kingdom: Phyla Platyhelminthes and Nematoda 38 Survey of the Animal Kingdom: Phyla Mollusca and Annelida 39 Survey of the Animal Kingdom: Phylum Arthropoda 40 Survey of the Animal Kingdom: Phyla Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata 41 Vertebrate Animal Tissues: Epithelial, Connective, Muscular, and Nervous Tissues 42 Human Biology: The Human Skeletal System 43 Human Biology: Muscles and Muscle Contraction 44 Human Biology: Breathing 45 Human Biology: Circulation and Blood Pressure 46 Human Biology: Sensory Perception 47 Vertebrate Anatomy: External Features and Skeletal System of the Rat 48 Vertebrate Anatomy: Muscles and Internal Organs of the Rat 49 Vertebrate Anatomy: Urogenital and Circulatory Systems of the Rat 50 Embryology: Comparative Morphologies and Strategies of Development 51 Animal Behavior: Taxis, Kinesis, and Agonistic Behavior
Darrell Vodopich is currently teaching at Baylor University in Waco and has authored the best-selling laboratory manual that accompanies Biology by Raven/Johnson. In addition to writing numerous articles and textbooks, he is Editor-in-Chief of the American Biology Teacher. Randy was awarded the 1993 Teacher Exemplar Award by the National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT). Other awards and honors include a Fulbright Scholarship, a listing in the Who's Who in Science and Engineering, 1986 Most Outstanding Teacher from Baylor University, and 1980 Most Outstanding Teaching Assistant from UCLA. He received his Ph.D. in Plant Development from UCLA