Bone tissue plays a vital role in the human system for its biological and mechanical activities, resulting from its regenerative capacity and permanent remodelling process. Bone damage, either due to pathologies or traumas, is a very common occurrence and represents a major problem in orthopaedics. This book briefly summarises recent literature concerning modification and applications of osteoinductive materials for reconstructive surgery. Several recent developments of biocomposites containing silica nanoparticles or calcium sulphate intended for bone regeneration are also reported. In addition, new therapies are identified for bone regeneration in an injured or diseased state, as well as for bone loss in ageing. Also discussed in this book is normal bone development, mesenchymal stem cells in osteogenesis, and essential elements that regulate osteogenesis at the extracellular, intracellular and nuclear levels.