The Medici court painter Botticelli is one of the unequivocal artists of the Italian Renaissance alongside Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael. Favoring feminine portraits, Botticelli stands apart through the finesse of his lines and the unbridled sensuality of his paintings. Between religious and private commissions this Florentine artist introduced the profane into art through works of complex mythological subjects, such as the incontrovertibly masterful Primavera and The Birth of Venus. Emile Gebhart is an art historian and French literary critic who held the chair of foreign literature at the University of Nancy, followed by the chair of Southern European literature at the Faculty of Letters in Paris. An eminent specialist in Italian art, he has published several works on Florence and essays on Renaissance Italy. Victoria Charles is a professor of art history.