The rise of living standards and the deterioration of thermal conditions in the urban environment are mainly responsible for the increase in the energy consumption in buildings. Low energy design of urban environment and buildings in densely populated areas requires consideration of a wide range of factors, including urban setting, transport planning, energy system design and architectural and engineering details. Furthermore, sustainability has acquired great importance due to the negative impact of various developments on the environment. This book focuses on ways to reduce building energy consumption by designing buildings which are more economical in their use of energy for heating, lighting, cooling, ventilation and hot water supply. Furthermore, people living in developed countries are exposed to many physical and mental stresses caused by the urban environment, including air, water and ground pollution. Various trails concerning the domiciliary environment are discussed to support and promote human health in indoor conditions, such as those involving the use of fewer chemicals in buildings.
This book also details the establishment of negatively-charged indoor air conditions and investigate their biological effects. Other chapters in this book include a study of methods on how to reduce the energy consumption in different kinds of school buildings, findings on a new generation of decision-making tools for estimating the environmental effects on residential property value and methods on how to reduce airborne contamination in hospital buildings.