*Master CCIE 350-001 exam topics with the official study guide *Assess your knowledge with chapter-opening quizzes *Review key concepts with foundation summaries *Practice with hundreds of exam questions on the CD-ROM Wendell Odom, CCIE No. 1624 Rus Healy, CCIE No. 15025 Naren Mehta, CCIE No. 9797 CCIE Routing and Switching Exam Certification Guide, Third Edition, is a best of breed Cisco exam study guide that focuses specifically on the objectives for the CCIE Routing and Switching written exam. Senior instructor and best-selling author Wendell Odom shares preparation hints and test-taking tips, helping you identify areas of weakness and improve both your conceptual knowledge and hands-on skills. Material is presented in a concise manner, focusing on increasing your understanding and retention of exam topics. CCIE Routing and Switching Exam Certification Guide, Third Edition, presents you with an organized test preparation routine through the use of proven series elements and techniques. "Do I Know This Already" quizzes open each chapter and allow you to decide how much time you need to spend on each section.Foundation Topic sections present detailed overviews of all exam objectives.
Key Topic icons allow you to identify and quickly review the most important exam topics. Foundation summaries reinforce key exam concepts with review exercises and important tables. The companion CD-ROM contains a powerful testing engine that allows you to focus on individual topic areas or take complete, timed exams. The assessment engine also tracks your performance and provides feedback on a chapter-by-chapter basis, presenting question-by-question remediation to the text and laying out a complete study plan for review. Well regarded for its level of detail, assessment features, and challenging review exercises and practice questions, this completely revised and updated third edition helps you master the concepts and techniques that will enable you to succeed on the exam the first time. CCIE Routing and Switching Exam Certification Guide, Third Edition, is part of a recommended learning path from Cisco that includes simulation and hands-on training from authorized Cisco Learning Partners and self-study products from Cisco Press.To find out more about instructor-led training, e-learning, and hands-on instruction offered by authorized Cisco Learning Partners worldwide, visit www.cisco.
com/go/authorizedtraining. Wendell Odom, CCIE No. 1624, has been in the networking industry since 1981. He currently teaches QoS, MPLS, and CCNA courses for Skyline Advanced Technology Services (http://www.skyline-ats.com). Wendell has worked as a network engineer, consultant, systems engineer, and as an instructor and course developer and has taught authorized Cisco courses for the majority of the last 14 years. Rus Healy, CCIE No. 15025, is a principal SE with Annese & Associates, the largest upstate New York Cisco Silver partner. Naren Mehta, CCIE No 9797, is a senior partner and director of training for an internationally known training and consulting company that specializes in providing customized, one-to-one training for CCIE lab students and consulting.The official study guide helps you master all the topics on the CCIE Routing and Switching written exam, including: *Bridging and LAN switching *IP addressing, IP services, and TCP, UDP, and application protocol details *Layer 3 forwarding concepts *EIGRP, OSPF, and BGP routing protocols *Quality of service (QoS)*Frame Relay *MPLS *IP Multicast *IPv6 *Router and switch security Companion CD-ROM The CD-ROM contains an electronic copy of the book and more than 250 practice questions for the CCIE Routing and Switching written exam, all available in study mode, test mode, and flash card format.
This volume is part of the Exam Certification Guide Series from Cisco Press. Books in this series provide officially developed exam preparation materials that offer assessment, review, and practice to help Cisco Career Certification candidates identify weaknesses, concentrate their study efforts, and enhance their confidence as exam day nears. Category: Cisco Press-Cisco Certification Covers: CCIE Routing and Switching written exam 350-001 v3.0
Table of Contents
Foreword xxx Introduction xxxi Part I Part I: LAN Switching 3 Chapter 1 Ethernet Basics 5 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 5 Foundation Topics 8 Ethernet Layer 1: Wiring, Speed, and Duplex 8 RJ-45 Pinouts and Category 5 Wiring 8 Auto-negotiation, Speed, and Duplex 9 CSMA/CD 10 Collision Domains and Switch Buffering 10 Basic Switch Port Configuration 12 Ethernet Layer 2: Framing and Addressing 14 Types of Ethernet Addresses 16 Ethernet Address Formats 17 Protocol Types and the 802.3 Length Field 18 Switching and Bridging Logic 19 Foundation Summary 22 Memory Builders 25 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 25 Definitions 25 Further Reading 25 Chapter 2 Virtual LANs and VLAN Trunking 27 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 27 Foundation Topics 31 Virtual LANs 31 VLAN Configuration 31 Using VLAN Database Mode to Create VLANs 32 Using Configuration Mode to Put Interfaces into VLANs 34 Using Configuration Mode to Create VLANs 35 Private VLANs 36 VLAN Trunking Protocol 38 VTP Process and Revision Numbers 39 VTP Configuration 40 Normal-Range and Extended-Range VLANs 42 Storing VLAN Configuration 43 VLAN Trunking: ISL and 802.1Q 44 ISL and 802.1Q Concepts 44 I SL and 802.1Q Configuration 45 Allowed, Active, and Pruned VLANs 48 Trunk Configuration Compatibility 48 Configuring Trunking on Routers 49 802.1Q-in-Q Tunneling 51 Foundation Summary 53 Memory Builders 54 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 54 Definitions 54 Further Reading 55 Chapter 3 Spanning Tree Protocol 57 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 57 Foundation Topics 61 802.1d Spanning Tree Protocol 61 Choosing Which Ports Forward: Choosing Root Ports and Designated Ports 61 Electing a Root Switch 61 Determining the Root Port 63 Determining the Designated Port 64 Converging to a New STP Topology 65 Topology Change Notification and Updating the CAM 66 Transitioning from Blocking to Forwarding 67 Per-VLAN Spanning Tree and STP over Trunks 68 STP Configuration and Analysis 70 Optimizing Spanning Tree 73 PortFast, UplinkFast, and BackboneFast 73 PortFast 74 UplinkFast 74 BackboneFast 75 PortFast, UplinkFast, and BackboneFast Configuration 75 PortChannels 76 Load Balancing Across PortChannels 76 PortChannel Discovery and Configuration 77 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol 78 Rapid Per VLAN Spanning Tree Plus (RPVST+) 80 Multiple Spanning Trees: IEEE 802.1s 81 Protecting STP 82 Root Guard and BPDU Guard: Protecting Access Ports 83 DLD and Loop Guard: Protecting Trunks 83 Foundation Summary 85 Memory Builders 87 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 87 Definitions 87 Further Reading 87 Part II IP 89 Chapter 4 IP Addressing 91 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 91 Foundation Topics 94 IP Addressing and Subnetting 94 IP Addressing and Subnetting Review 94 Subnetting a Classful Network Number 95 Comments on Classless Addressing 97 Subnetting Math 97 Dissecting the Component Parts of an IP Address 97 Finding Subnet Numbers and Valid Range of IP Addresses-Binary 98 Decimal Shortcuts to Find the Subnet Number and Valid Range of IP Addresses 99 Determining All Subnets of a Network-Binary 102 Determining All Subnets of a Network-Decimal 104 VLSM Subnet Allocation 105 Route Summarization Concepts 107 Finding Inclusive Summary Routes-Binary 108 Finding Inclusive Summary Routes-Decimal 109 Finding Exclusive Summary Routes-Binary 110 CIDR, Private Addresses, and NAT 111 Classless Interdomain Routing 111 Private Addressing 113 Network Address Translation 113 Static NAT 115 Dynamic NAT Without PAT 116 Overloading NAT with Port Address Translation 117 Dynamic NAT and PAT Configuration 118 Foundation Summary 120 Memory Builders 123 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 123 Definitions 124 Further Reading 124 Chapter 5 IP Services 127 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 127 Foundation Topics 131 ARP, Proxy ARP, Reverse ARP, BOOTP, and DHCP 131 ARP and Proxy ARP 131 RARP, BOOTP, and DHCP 132 DHCP 133 HSRP, VRRP, and GLBP 135 Network Time Protocol 139 SNMP 140 SNMP Protocol Messages 142 SNMP MIBs 143 SNMP Security 144 Syslog 144 Web Cache Communication Protocol 145 Foundation Summary 148 Memory Builders 150 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 151 Definitions 151 Further Reading 151 Part III IP Routing 153 Chapter 6 IP Forwarding (Routing) 155 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 155 Foundation Topics 159 IP Forwarding 159 Process Switching, Fast Switching, and Cisco Express Forwarding 160 Building Adjacency Information: ARP and Inverse ARP 161 Frame Relay Inverse ARP 162 Static Configuration of Frame Relay Mapping Information 165 Disabling InARP 166 Classless and Classful Routing 167 Multilayer Switching 168 MLS Logic 168 Using Routed Ports and PortChannels with MLS 169 MLS Configuration 170 Policy Routing 174 Foundation Summary 179 Memory Builders 180 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 180 Definitions 181 Further Reading 181 Chapter 7 RIP Version 2 183 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 183 Foundation Topics 186 RIP Version 2 Basics 186 RIP Convergence and Loop Prevention 187 Converged Steady-State Operation 188 Triggered (Flash) Updates and Poisoned Routes 190 RIP Convergence When Routing Updates Cease 192 Convergence Extras 194 RIP Configuration 195 Enabling RIP and the Effects of Autosummarization 196 RIP Authentication 198 RIP Next-Hop Feature and Split Horizon 198 RIP Offset Lists 199 Route Filtering with Distribute Lists and Prefix Lists 199 Foundation Summary 200 Memory Builders 202 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 202 Definitions 202 Further Reading 202 Chapter 8 EIGRP 205 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 205 Foundation Topics 209 EIGRP Basics and Steady-State Operation 209 Hellos, Neighbors, and Adjacencies 209 EIGRP Updates 212 The EIGRP Topology Table 214 EIGRP Convergence 216 Input Events and Local Computation 217 Going Active on a Route 219 tuck-in-Active 221 Limiting Query Scope 222 EIGRP Configuration 222 EIGRP Configuration Example 222 EIGRP Load Balancing 225 EIGRP Authentication 226 EIGRP Automatic Summarization 227 EIGRP Split Horizon 228 EIGRP Route Filtering 228 EIGRP Offset Lists 230 Clearing the IP Routing Table 231 Foundation Summary 232 Memory Builders 234 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 234 Definitions 234 Further Reading 235 Chapter 9 OSPF 237 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 237 Foundation Topics 242 OSPF Database Exchange 242 OSPF Router IDs 242 Becoming Neighbors, Exchanging Databases, and Becoming Adjacent 243 Becoming Neighbors: The Hello Process 245 Flooding LSA Headers to Neighbors 246 Database Descriptor Exchange: Master/Slave Relationship 247 Requesting, Getting, and Acknowledging LSAs 247 Designated Routers on LANs 248 Designated Router Optimization on LANs 248 DR Election on LANs 250 Designated Routers on WANs and OSPF Network Types 251 Caveats Regarding OSPF Network Types over NBMA Networks 252 Example of OSPF Network Types and NBMA 253 SPF Calculation 256 Steady-State Operation 257 OSPF Design and LSAs 257 OSPF Design Terms 258 OSPF Path Selection Process 259 LSA Types and Network Types 259 LSA Types 1 and 2 260 LSA Type 3 and Inter-Area Costs 263 Removing Routes Advertised by Type 3 LSAs 266 LSA Types 4 and 5, and External Route Types 1 and 2 266 OSPF Design in Light of LSA Types 268 Stubby Areas 269 Graceful Restart 272 OSPF Path Choices That Do Not Use Cost 273 Choosing the Best Type of Path 273 Best-Path Side Effects of ABR Loop Prevention 274 OSPF Configuration 276 OSPF Costs and Clearing the OSPF Process 278 OSPF Filtering 281 Filtering Routes Using th e distribute-list Command 281 OSPF ABR LSA Type 3 Filtering 283 Filtering Type 3 LSAs with the area range Command 284 Virtual Link Configuration 284 Configuring OSPF Authentication 286 OSPF Stub Router Configuration 289 Foundation Summary 290 Memory Builders 294 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 295 Definitions 295 Further Reading 295 Chapter 10 IGP Route Redistribution, Route Summarization, and Default Routing 297 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 297 Foundation Topics 301 Route Maps, Prefix Lists, and Administrative Distance 301 Configuring Route Maps with the route-map Command 301 Route Map match Commands for Route Redistribution 303 Route Map set Commands for Route Redistribution 304 IP Prefix Lists 305 Administrative Distance 307 Route Redistribution 308 Mechanics of the redistribute Command 308 Redistribution Using Default Settings 309 Setting Metrics, Metric Types, and Tags 312 Redistributing a Subset of Routes Using a Route Map 313 Mutual Redistribution at Multiple Routers 317 Preventing Suboptimal Routes by Setting the Administrative Distance 319 Preventing Suboptimal Routes by Using Route Tags 322 Using Metrics and Metric Types to Influence Redistributed Routes 324 Route Summarization 326 EIGRP Route Summarization 328 OSPF Route Summarization 328 Default Routes 329 Using Static Routes to 0.0.0.0, with redistribute static 331 Using the default-information originate Command 332 Using the ip default-network Command 333 Using Route Summarization to Create Default Routes 334 Foundation Summary 336 Memory Builders 337 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 337 Definitions 337 Further Reading 337 Chapter 11 BGP 339 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 339 Foundation Topics 344 Building BGP Neighbor Relationships 345 Internal BGP Neighbors 346 External BGP Neighbors 349 Checks Before Becoming BGP Neighbors 350 BGP Messages and Neighbor States 352 BGP Message Types 352 Purposefully Resetting BGP Peer Connections 353 Building the BGP Table 354 Injecting Routes/Prefixes into the BGP Table 354 BGP network Command 354 Redistributing from an IGP, Static, or Connected Route 357 Impact of Auto-Summary on Redistributed Routes and the network Command 359 Manual Summaries and the AS_PATH Path Attribute 362 Adding Default Routes to BGP 365 ORIGIN Path Attribute 366 Advertising BGP Routes to Neighbors 367 BGP Update Message 367 Determining the Contents of Updates 368 Example: Impact of the Decision Process and NEXT_HOP on BGP Updates 370 Summary of Rules for Routes Advertised in BGP Updates 376 Building the IP Routing Table 376 Adding eBGP Routes to the IP Routing Table 376 Backdoor Routes 377 Adding iBGP Routes to the IP Routing Table 378 Using Sync and Redistributing Routes 380 Disabling Sync and Using BGP on All Routers in an AS 382 Confederations 383 Configuring Confederations 385 Route Reflectors 388 Foundation Summary 394 Memory Builders 398 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 398 Definitions 398 Further Reading 399 Part IV QoS 401 Chapter 12 Classification and Marking 403 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 403 Foundation Topics 407 Fields That Can Be Marked for QoS Purposes 407 IP Precedence and DSCP Compared 407 DSCP Settings and Terminology 408 Class Selector PHB and DSCP Values 409 Assured Forwarding PHB and DSCP Values 409 Expedited Forwarding PHB and DSCP Values 410 Non-IP Header Marking Fields 411 Ethernet LAN Class of Service 411 WAN Marking Fields 411 Locations for Marking and Matching 412 Cisco Modular QoS CLI 413 Mechanics of MQC 414 Classification Using Class Maps 415 Using Multiple match Commands 416 Classification Using NBAR 417 Classification and Marking Tools 418 Class-Based Marking (CB Marking) Configuration 418 CB Marking Example 419 CB Marking of CoS and DSCP 423 Network-Based Application Recognition 425 CB Marking Design Choices 426 Marking Using Policers 427 QoS Pre-Classification 428 Policy Routing for Marking 429 Foundation Summary 430 Memory Builders 432 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 432 Definitions 432 Further Reading 432 Chapter 13 Congestion Management and Avoidance 435 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 435 Cisco Router Queuing Concepts 438 Software Queues and Hardware Queues 438 Queuing on Interfaces Versus Subinterfaces and Virtual Circuits 439 Comparing Queuing Tools 439 Queuing Tools: CBWFQ and LLQ 440 CBWFQ Basic Features and Configuration 441 Defining and Limiting CBWFQ Bandwidth 443 Low-Latency Queuing 446 Defining and Limiting LLQ Bandwidth 448 LLQ with More Than One Priority Queue 449 Miscellaneous CBWFQ/LLQ Topics 450 Queuing Summary 451 Weighted Random Early Detection 451 How WRED Weights Packets 453 WRED Configuration 454 Modified Deficit Round-Robin 455 LAN Switch Congestion Management and Avoidance 457 Cisco 3550 and 3560 Switch Ingress Queueing 458 Cisco 3550 Switch Egress Queuing 459 Cisco 3560 Switch Egress Queuing 461 Cisco 3550 Congestion Avoidance 463 Cisco 3560 Congestion Avoidance 465 Comparisons Between Cisco 3550 and 3560 Switches 465 Foundation Summary 467 Memory Builders 467 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 467 Definitions 467 Further Reading 467 Chapter 14 Shaping and Policing 469 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 469 Foundation Topics 473 Traffic-Shaping Concepts 473 Shaping Terminology 473 Shaping with an Excess Burst 475 Underlying Mechanics of Shaping 475 Traffic-Shaping Adaptation on Frame Relay Networks 477 Class-Based Shaping Configuration 477 Tuning Shaping for Voice Using LLQ and a Small Tc 479 Configuring Shaping by Bandwidth Percent 482 CB Shaping to a Peak Rate 483 Adaptive Shaping 483 Frame Relay Traffic Shaping Configuration 483 FRTS Configuration Using the traffic-rate Command 485 Setting FRTS Parameters Explicitly 486 FRTS Configuration Using LLQ 487 FRTS Adaptive Shaping 488 FRTS with MQC 489 Policing Concepts and Configuration 489 CB Policing Concepts 489 Single-Rate, Two-Color Policing (One Bucket) 490 Single-Rate, Three-Color Policer (Two Buckets) 491 Two-Rate, Three-Color Policer (Two Buckets) 492 Class-Based Policing Configuration 493 Single-Rate, Three-Color Policing of All Traffic 494 Policing a Subset of the Traffic 495 CB Policing Defaults for Bc and Be 495 Configuring Dual-Rate Policing 496 Multi-Action Policing 496 Policing by Percentage 497 Committed Access Rate 497 Foundation Summary 501 Memory Builders 503 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 503 Definitions 503 Further Reading 504 Part V Wide-Area Networks 507 Chapter 15 Frame Relay 509 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 509 Foundation Topics 512 Frame Relay Concepts 512 Frame Relay Data Link Connection Identifiers 512 Local Management Interface 513 Frame Relay Headers and Encapsulation 514 Frame Relay Congestion: DE, BECN, and FECN 515 Adaptive Shaping, FECN, and BECN 516 The Discard Eligibility Bit 517 Frame Relay Configuration 517 Frame Relay Configuration Basics 517 Frame Relay Payload Compression 521 Frame Relay Fragmentation 522 Foundation Summary 525 Memory Builders 526 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 527 Definitions 527 Further Reading 527 Part VI IP Multicast 529 Chapter 16 Introduction to IP Multicasting 531 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 531 Foundation Topics 534 Why Do You Need Multicasting? 534 Problems with Unicast and Broadcast Methods 535 How Multicasting Provides a Scalable and Manageable Solution 537 Multicast IP Addresses 540 Multicast Address Range and Structure 540 Well-Known Multicast Addresses 540 Multicast Addresses for Permanent Groups 541 Multicast Addresses for Source-Specific Multicast Applications and Protocols 542 Multicast Addresses for GLOP Addressing 542 Multicast Addresses for Private Multicast Domains 543 Multicast Addresses for Transient Groups 543 Summary of Multicast Address Ranges 543 Mapping IP Multicast Addresses to MAC Addresses 544 Managing Distribution of Multicast Traffic with IGMP 546 Joining a Group 547 Internet Group Management Protocol 548 IGMP Version 2 548 IGMPv2 Host Membership Query Functions 550 IGMPv2 Host Membership Report Functions 552 IGMPv2 Leave Group and Group-Specific Query Messages 556 IGMPv2 Querier 558 IGMPv1 and IGMPv2 Interoperability 559 IGMPv2 Host and IGMPv1 Routers 559 IGMPv1 Host and IGMPv2 Routers 559 IGMPv2 Timers 560 IGMP Version 3 561 Comparison of IGMPv1, IGMPv2, and IGMPv3 562 LAN Multicast Optimizations 564 Cisco Group Management Protocol 564 IGMP Snooping 570 Router-Port Group Management Protocol 575 Foundation Summary 578 Memory Builders 578 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 579 Definitions 579 Further Reading 579 References in This Chapter 579 Chapter 17 IP Multicast Routing 581 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 581 Foundation Topics 585 Multicast Routing Basics 585 Overview of Multicast Routing Protocols 586 Multicast Forwarding Using Dense Mode 586 Reverse Path Forwarding Check 587 Multicast Forwarding Using Sparse Mode 589 Multicast Scoping 591 TTL Scoping 591 Administrative Scoping 592 Dense-Mode Routing Protocols 592 Operation of Protocol Independent Multicast Dense Mode 593 Forming PIM Adjacencies Using PIM Hello Messages 593 Source-Based Distribution Trees 594 Prune Message 595 PIM-DM: Reacting to a Failed Link 597 Rules for Pruning 599 Steady-State Operation and the State Refresh Message 601 Graft Message 602 LAN-Specific Issues with PIM-DM and PIM-SM 604 Prune Override 604 Assert Message 605 Designated Router 606 Summary of PIM-DM Messages 607 Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol 608 Multicast Open Shortest Path First 608 Sparse-Mode Routing Protocols 609 Operation of Protocol Independent Multicast Sparse Mode 609 Similarities Between PIM-DM and PIM-SM 609 Sources Sending Packets to the Rendezvous Point 610 Joining the Shared Tree 612 Completion of the Source Registration Process 614 Shared Distribution Tree 616 Steady-State Operation by Continuing to Send Joins 617 Examining the RP's Multicast Routing Table 618 Shortest-Path Tree Switchover 619 Pruning from the Shared Tree 621 Dynamically Finding RPs and Using Redundant RPs 622 Dynamically Finding the RP Using Auto-RP 623 Dynamically Finding the RP Using BSR 626 Anycast RP with MSDP 628 Summary: Finding the RP 630 Bidirectional PIM 631 Comparison of PIM-DM and PIM-SM 632 Foundation Summary 634 Memory Builders 638 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 638 Definitions 639 Further Reading 639 Part VII Security 641 Chapter 18 Security 643 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 643 Foundation Topics 647 Router and Switch Device Security 647 Simple Password Protection for the CLI 647 Better Protection of Enable and Username Passwords 648 User Mode and Privileged Mode AAA Authentication 649 Using a Default Set of Authentication Methods 650 Using Multiple Authentication Methods 651 Groups of AAA Servers 652 Overriding the Defaults for Login Security 653 PPP Security 654 Layer 2 Security 654 Switch Security Best Practices for Unused and User Ports 655 Port Security 656 Dynamic ARP Inspection 660 DHCP Snooping 663 IP Source Guard 665 802.1X Authentication Using EAP 666 Storm Control 668 General Layer 2 Security Recommendations 670 Layer 3 Security 671 IP Access Control List Review 672 ACL Rule Summary 674 Wildcard Masks 675 General Layer 3 Security Considerations 676 Smurf Attacks, Directed Broadcasts, and RPF Checks 676 nappropriate IP Addresses 678 TCP SYN Flood, the Established Bit, and TCP Intercept 679 Context-Based Access Control 681 TCP Versus UDP with CBAC 682 CBAC Protocol Support 682 CBAC Caveats 683 CBAC Configuration Steps 683 Dynamic Multipoint VPN 684 Foundation Summary 686 Memory Builders 688 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 689 Definitions 689 Further Reading 689 Part VIII MPLS 691 Chapter 19 Multiprotocol Label Switching 693 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 693 Foundation Topics 696 MPLS Unicast IP Forwarding 696 MPLS IP Forwarding: Data Plane 697 CEF Review 697 Overview of MPLS Unicast IP Forwarding 698 MPLS Forwarding Using the FIB and LFIB 700 The MPLS Header and Label 701 The MPLS TTL Field and MPLS TTL Propagation 702 MPLS IP Forwarding: Control Plane 704 MPLS LDP Basics 704 The MPLS Label Information Base Feeding the FIB and LFIB 707 Examples of FIB and LFIB Entries 711 Label Distribution Protocol Reference 713 MPLS VPNs 714 The Problem: Duplicate Customer Address Ranges 715 The Solution: MPLS VPNs 716 The MPLS VPN Control Plane 719 Virtual Routing and Forwarding Tables 719 MP-BGP and Route Distinguishers 721 Route Targets 723 Overlapping VPNs 725 The MPLS VPN Data Plane 726 Building the (Inner) VPN Label 728 Creating LFIB Entries to Forward Packets to the Egress PE 729 Creating VRF FIB Entries for the Ingress PE 731 Penultimate Hop Popping 733 Other MPLS Applications 734 Foundation Summary 736 Memory Builders 736 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 736 Definitions 736 Further Reading 736 Part IX IP Version 6 739 Chapter 20 IP Version 6 741 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 741 Foundation Topics 745 IPv6 Addressing and Address Types 746 IPv6 Address Notation 746 Address Abbreviation Rules 747 IPv6 Address Types 747 Unicast 748 Multicast 751 Anycast 753 The Unspecified Address 754 IPv6 Address Autoconfiguration 754 EUI-64 Address Format 754 Basic IPv6 Functionality Protocols 756 Neighbor Discovery 756 Neighbor Advertisements 758 Neighbor Solicitation 758 Router Advertisement and Router Solicitation 759 Duplicate Address Detection 760 Neighbor Unreachability Detection 761 ICMPv6 761 Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding 762 DNS 763 CDP 763 DHCP 764 Access Lists and Traffic Filtering 765 IPv6 Static Routes 766 IPv6 Unicast Routing Protocols 767 OSPFv3 768 Differences Between OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 768 Virtual Links, Address Summarization, and Other OSPFv3 Features 769 OSPFv3 LSA Types 770 OSPFv3 in NBMA Networks 771 Configuring OSPFv3 over Frame Relay 771 Enabling and Configuring OSPFv3 772 Authentication and Encryption 779 EIGRP for IPv6 780 Differences Between EIGRP for IPv4 and for IPv6 780 Unchanged Features 781 Route Filtering 782 Configuring EIGRP for IPv6 782 Quality of Service 789 QoS Implementation Strategy 789 Classification, Marking, and Queuing 790 Congestion Avoidance 790 Traffic Shaping and Policing 791 Tunneling Techniques 791 Tunneling Overview 791 Manually Configured Tunnels 793 Automatic IPv4-Compatible Tunnels 794 IPv6 over IPv4 GRE Tunnels 794 Automatic 6to4 Tunnels 795 ISATAP Tunnels 797 NAT-PT 797 IPv6 Multicast 798 Multicast Listener Discovery 798 Explicit Tracking 798 PIM 798 PIM DR Election 799 Source-Specific Multicast 799 PIM BSR 799 Additional PIM Concepts and Options 800 IPv6 Multicast Static Routes 800 Configuring Multicast Routing for IPv6 800 Foundation Summary 801 Memory Builders 803 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 803 Definitions 803 Further Reading 803 Part X Appendixes 805 Appendix A Answers to the "Do I Know This Already?" Quizzes 807 Appendix B Decimal to Binary Conversion Table 837 Appendix C CCIE Routing and Switching Exam Updates: Version 1.0 841 Glossary 845 Index 906 CD-Only Appendix D IP Addressing Practice Appendix E Key Tables for CCIE Study Appendix F Solutions for Key Tables for CCIE Study Appendix G IEEE 802.11 Fundamentals Appendix H Wireless LAN Solutions
Wendell Odom CCIE No. 1624, has been in the networking industry since 1981. He currently teaches QoS, MPLS, and CCNA courses for Skyline Advanced Technology Services. Wendell also has worked as a network engineer, consultant, and systems engineer, and as an instructor and course developer. He is the author of all prior editions of CCNA Exam Certification Guide as well as Cisco QOS Exam Certification Guide , Second Edition, Computer Networking First-Step , CCIE Routing and Switching Official Exam Certification Guide , Second Edition, and CCNA Video Mentor, all from Cisco Press. Rus Healy, CCIE No. 15025, wrote Chapter 20, "IP Version 6," and made updates, large and small, to most other chapters in updating the book for the Cisco CCIE Routing and Switching version 3.0 blueprint. He has worked on several Cisco Press projects, including the second edition of this book, as a technical reviewer. Rus is a principal SE with Annese & Associates, the largest Cisco Upstate New York Silver partner. He was instrumental in guiding Annese to Cisco Silver partnership and their three Cisco Advanced Specializations (Wireless LAN, Security, and Unified Communications). In addition to the CCIE Routing and Switching certification, Rus holds Cisco CCDP and CCVP certifications, several Cisco Qualified Specialist certifications in Unified Communications, and the Cisco Technology Solution Specialist (TSS) designation in Unified Communications. Along with his wife, Nancy, and children, Gwen and Trevor, Rus lives in the Finger Lakes region of New York. He and his family enjoy camping, boating, skiing, bicycling, and many other family activities. Rus is also an avid amateur radio contest operator, particularly using Morse Code. He was a member of the U.S. team in the 2002 World Radio Team Championship in Helsinki, Finland. Rus is also active in the Ontario County, New York chapter of Habitat for Humanity and in St Mary's Church in Honeoye, New York.