Dystonia is a common neurological syndrome characterised by sustained muscle contractions that produce repetitive movements or abnormal postures. This disorder may be inherited or caused by other factors such as birth-related or other physical trauma, infection, poisoning or reaction to drugs, particularly neuroleptics. Although the pathophysiology of dystonia is not fully understood, accumulating evidence suggests that dystonias can result due to the dysfunction of the basal ganglia circuits; this notion is supported by lesion, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological data obtained from patients with dystonia. Furthermore, the management of dystonia consists of oral medication, chemodenervation, surgical approaches, limb immobilisation and orthosis, or physical therapy. Multiple strategies are usually necessary.
This book gathers the latest research from around the world in the study of dystonia and highlights topics such as drug-induced acute dystonia, time course of the effects of botulinum neurotoxin, diagnosis and treatment strategies for antipsychotics-induced dystonia, impaired sensorimotor integration in focal dystonia and deep brain stimulation in adult and paediatric dystonia.