Plant physiological research has a fundamental role in advancing our understanding of plants and their interactions with surrounding environments. As occurs with most tropical plant species, the gaps in our knowledge of the ecophysiology of tropical tree crops are incommensurable, though significant advances have occurred in recent years. This book highlights these recent advances, which could provide valuable information to manage crop plants for maximum productivity. Major tropical tree crops, considered here in a broader sense as including species such as banana, cassava, citrus, cocoa, coconut, coffee, mango, oil palm, papaya, rubber, and tea, are examined. For most of these crops, photosynthesis is treated as a central process affecting crop growth and performance. Crop physiological responses to environmental factors such as light and water availability and temperature are highlighted. The flowering control and fruit growth of crops such as citrus, coffee and mango are explored. In addition, several gaps in our database concerning the ecophysiology of tropical tree crops and areas for further research are indicated.