The best-selling Educational Psychology: Developing Learners is known for its exceptionally clear and engaging writing, its in-depth focus on learning, and its extensive concrete applications. Its unique approach helps readers understand concepts by encouraging them to examine their own learning and then showing them how to apply these concepts as teachers. The book concentrates on core concepts and principles and gives readers an in-depth understanding of the central ideas of educational psychology--helping them better understand children and adolescents. More than any other educational psychology book, this book moves seamlessly between theory and applications, features the most extensive and integrated coverage of diversity, and includes innumerable concrete examples to help readers connect educational psychology to real children and classrooms.
Table of Contents
Chapter1 Teaching and Educational Psycholog 1 CASE STUDY: Picture Yourself 1 Teaching as Evidence-Based Practice 2 Understanding Research 4 Quantitative Research 5 A Qualitative Research 7 A Interpreting Research Results: A Cautionary Note 8 A From Research to Practice: The Importance of Theories 9 Collecting Data and Drawing Conclusions About Your Own Students 10 Assessing Students' Achievements and Behaviors 10 A Conducting Action Research 11 Developing as a Teacher 12 Strategies for Studying and Learning Effectively 13 The Big Picture 14 PRACTICE FOR YOUR LICENSURE EXAM 15 PART I Development and Diversity Chapter 2 Cognitive and Linguistic Development 19 CASE STUDY:Apple Tarts 19 General Principles of Human Development 20 The Multiple Layers of Environmental Influence: Bronfenbrenner's Theory 22 Role of the Brain in Learning and Development 23 Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development 26 Piaget's Basic Assumptions 27 A Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development 29 A Critiquing Piaget's Theory 34 A Considering Diversity from the Perspective of Piaget's Theory 35 A Contemporary Extensions and Applications of Piaget's Theory 36 Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development 38 Vygotsky's Basic Assumptions 39 A Critiquing Vygotsky's Theory 43 A Considering Diversity from the Perspective of Vygotsky's Theory 43 A Contemporary Extensions and Applications of Vygotsky's Theory 44 Language Development 49 Theoretical Issues Regarding Language Development 49 A Trends in Language Development 50 A Diversity in Language Development 53 A Second-Language Learning and English Language Learners 53 The Big Picture 57 PRACTICE FOR YOUR LICENSURE EXAM 58 Chapter 3 Personal and Social Development 61 CASE STUDY: Hidden Treasure 61 Personality Development 62 Temperament 62 A Environmental Influences on Personality Development 63 A The "Big Five" Personality Traits 66 A Temperament, Personality, and Goodness of Fit 66 Development of a Sense of Self 66 Factors Influencing Sense of Self 68 A Developmental Changes in Sense of Self 71 A Diversity in Sense of Self 74 Development of Peer Relationships and Interpersonal Understandings 75 Roles of Peers in Children's Development 76 A Characteristics of Peer Relationships 77 A Social Cognition 81 A Aggression 84 A Technology and Peer Relationships 86 A Diversity in Peer Relationships and Social Cognition 87 A Promoting Health Peer Relationships 87 Moral and Prosocial Development 90 Developmental Trends in Morality and Prosocial Behavior 90 A Factors Influencing Moral and Prosocial Behavior 95 A Diversity in Moral and Prosocial Behavior 95 A Encouraging Moral and Prosocial Development in the Classroom 97 The Big Picture 99 ALBQ149_Frontmatter.qxp 9/1/09 3:32 PM Page v vi Contents PRACTICE FOR YOUR LICENSURE EXAM 100 Chapter 4 Group Differences 103 CASE STUDY:Why Jack Wasn't in School 103 Cultural and Ethnic Differences 104 Navigating Different Cultures at Home and at School 105 A Examples of Cultural and Ethnic Diversity 107 A Creating a Culturally Inclusive Classroom Environment 113 Gender Differences 118 Research Findings Regarding Gender Differences 118 A Origins of Gender Differences 121 A Making Appropriate Accommodations for Gender Differences 124 Socioeconomic Differences 125 Challenges Associated with Poverty 126 A Fostering Resilience 128 A Working with Homeless Students 129 Students at Risk 130 Characteristics of Students at Risk 130 A Why Students Drop Out 131 A Supporting Students at Risk 132 The Big Picture 133 PRACTICE FOR YOUR LICENSURE EXAM 134 Chapter 5 Individual Differences and Special Education Needs 137 CASE STUDY:Tim 137 Intelligence 138 Theoretical Perspectives of Intelligence 138 A Measuring Intelligence 142 A Nature and Nurture in the Development of Intelligence 144 A Cultural and Ethnic Diversity in Intelligence 145 A Being Smart About Intelligence and IQ Scores 145 Cognitive Styles and Dispositions 147 Educating Students with Special Needs in General Education Classrooms 149 Public Law 94- 142: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 150 A Potential Benefits and Drawbacks on Inclusion 152 A Identifying Students' Particular Special Needs: Response to Intervention and People-First Language 153 Students with Specific Cognitive or Academic Difficulties 154 Learning Disabilities 154 A Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) 158 A Speech and Communication Disorders 159 A General Recommendations 161 Students with Social or Behavioral Problems 161 Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 162 A Autism Spectrum Disorders 164 A General Recommendations 165 Students with General Delays in Cognitive and Social Functioning 166 Intellectual Disabilities 166 Students with Physical or Sensory Challenges 168 Physical and Health Impairments 168 A General Recommendations 171 Students with Advanced Cognitive Development 172 Giftedness 172 Considering Diversity When Identifying and Addressing Special Needs 174 General Recommendations for Working with Students Who Have Special Needs 175 The Big Picture 176 PRACTICE FOR YOUR LICENSURE EXAM 176 PART I I Learning and Motivation Chapter 6 Learning and Cognitive Processes 179 CASE STUDY: Bones 179 Basic Assumptions of Cognitive Psychology 180 Models of Human Memory 183 The Nature of the Sensory Register 185 A Moving Information to Working Memory: The Role of Attention 186 A The Nature of Working (Short-Term) Memory 186 A Moving Information to Long-Term Memory: Connecting New Information with Prior Knowledge 189 A The Nature of Long-Term Memory 189 A Critiquing the Three-Component Model 190 Long-Term Memory Storage 190 How Declarative Knowledge Is Learned 191 A How Procedural Knowledge Is Learned 197 A Roles of Prior Knowledge and Working Memory in Long-Term Memory Storage 198 A Encouraging a Meaningful Learning Set 201 A Using Mnemonics in the Absence of Relevant Prior Knowledge 202 Long-Term Memory Retrieval 204 Factors Affecting Retrieval 204 A Why Learners Sometimes Forget 209 Diversity in Cognitive Processes 210 Facilitating Cognitive Processing in Students with Special Needs 211 The Big Picture 213 Practicing for Your Licensure Exam 214 ALBQ149_Frontmatter.qxp 9/1/09 3:32 PM Page vi Contents vii Chapter 7 Knowledge Construction 217 CASE STUDY: The New World 217 Constructive Processes in Learning and Memory 218 Construction in Storage 218 A Construction in Retrieval 220 A Knowledge Construction as a Social Process 220 Organizing Knowledge 222 Concepts 222 A Schema and Scripts 224 A Theories 226 A Worldviews 227 Promoting Effective Knowledge Construction 228 Providing Opportunities for Firsthand Observation and Experimentation 228 A Presenting Experts' Perspectives 228 A Emphasizing Conceptual Understanding 229 A Encouraging Classroom Dialogue 230 A Assigning Authentic Activities 231 A Scaffolding Theory Construction 232 A Creating a Community of Learners 234 When Knowledge Construction Goes Awry:Addressing Learners' Misconceptions 236 Obstacles to Conceptual Change 239 A Promoting Conceptual Change 240 Diversity in Constructive Processes 243 Accommodating Students with Special Needs 244 The Big Picture 245 PRACTICE FOR YOUR LICENSURE EXAM 245 Chapter 8 Complex Cognitive Processes 249 CASE STUDY:Taking Over 249 Metacognition and Learning Strategies 250 Effective Learning Strategies 251 A Factors Affecting Strategy Use 256 A Diversity, Disabilities, and Exceptional Abilities in Metacognition 258 Transfer 261 Factors Affecting Transfer 263 Problem Solving 265 Problem-Solving Strategies: Algorithms and Heuristics 267 A Cognitive Factors Affecting Problem Solving 269 A Using Computer Technology to Teach Problem-Solving Skills 272 Creativity 273 Fostering Creativity 274 Critical Thinking 275 Fostering Critical Thinking 277 Diversity in Creativity,Critical Thinking, and Other Complex Thinking Processes 278 Accommodating Students with Special Needs 280 The Big Picture 281 PRACTICE FOR YOUR LICENSURE EXAM 282 Chapter 9 Behaviorist Views of Learning 285 CASE STUDY: The Attention Getter 285 Basic Assumptions of Behaviorism 286 Building on Existing Stimulus--Response Associations: Classical Conditioning 287 Classical Conditioning of Involuntary Emotional Responses 289 Common Phenomena in Classical Conditioning 290 A Addressing Counterproductive Emotional Responses 291 Learning from Consequences: Instrumental Conditioning 291 Contrasting Classical Conditioning and Instrumental Conditioning 292 The Various Forms That Reinforcement Can Take 293 A The Various Forms That Punishment Can Take 297 Strategies for Encouraging Productive Behaviors 301 Using Reinforcement Effectively 302 A Shaping New Behaviors 307 Bringing Antecedent Stimuli and Responses into the Picture 308 Strategies for Discouraging Undesirable Behaviors 310 Creating Conditions for Extinction 310 A Cueing Inappropriate Behaviors 310 A Reinforcing Incompatible Behaviors 311 A Using Punishment When Necessary 311 Addressing Especially Difficult Classroom Behaviors 313 Applied Behavior Analysis 313 A Functional Analysis and Positive Behavioral Support 314 Diversity in Student Behaviors and Reactions to Consequences 316 Accommodating Students with Special Needs 317 Strengths and Potential Limitations of Behavioral Approaches 317 The Big Picture 319 PRACTICE FOR YOUR LICENSURE EXAM 320 Chapter 10 Social Cognitive Views of Learning 323 CASE STUDY: Parlez-Vous Francais? 323 Basic Assumptions of Social Cognitive Theory 324 The Social Cognitive View of Reinforcement and Punishment 326 Modeling 329 ALBQ149_Frontmatter.qxp 9/1/09 3:32 PM Page vii viii Contents Behaviors and Skills That Can Be Learned Through Modeling 330 A Characteristics of Effective Models 331 A Essential Conditions for Successful Modeling 333 Self-Efficacy 335 How Self-Efficacy Affects Behavior and Cognition 335 A Factors in the Development of Self-Efficacy 337 A Teacher Self-Efficacy 339 Self-Regulation 341 Self-Regulated Behavior 342 A Self-Regulated Learning 347 A Self-Regulated Problem Solving 349 A Diversity in Self-Regulation 351 Revisiting Reciprocal Causation 352 Comparing the Three General Perspectives of Learning 356 The Big Picture 357 PRACTICE FOR YOUR LICENSURE EXAM 358 Chapter 11 Motivation and Affect 361 CASE STUDY: Passing Algebra 361 The Nature of Motivation 362 Extrinsic versus Intrinsic Motivation 364 Basic Human Needs 365 Arousal 365 A Competence and Self-Worth 366 A Self-Determination 368 A Relatedness 371 A Universality and Diversity in Basic Needs 372 A A Possible Hierarchy of Needs: Maslow's Theory 373 Cognitive Factors in Motivation 374 Interests 375 A Expectancies and Values 376 A Goals 379 A Attributions 385 A Teacher Expectations and Attributions 391 A Diversity in Cognitive Factors Affecting Motivation 394 Affect and Its Effects 399 How Affect and Motivation Are Interrelated 399 A How Affect Is Related to Learning and Cognition 400 A Anxiety in the Classroom 401 A Diversity in Affect 406 The Big Picture 408 PRACTICE FOR YOUR LICENSURE EXAM 410 PART I I I Classroom Strategies Chapter 12 Instructional Strategies CASE STUDY: Oregon Trail Planning for Instruction Identifying The Goals Of Instruction A Conducting A Task Analysis A Developing A Lesson Plan A Setting Up a Class Website Expository Strategies Lectures And Textbooks A Mastery Learning A Direct Instruction A Computer-Based Instruction A Instructional Websites Hands-On,"Head-On," and Practice Activities Discovery And Inquiry Learning A In-Class Assignments A Computer Simulations and Applications A Homework Interactive and Collaborative Approaches Teacher Questions A Class Discussions A Reciprocal Teaching A Cooperative Learning A Peer Tutoring A Technology-Based Collaborative Learning Taking Student Diversity Into Account Considering Group Differences A Accommodating Students with Special Needs The Big Picture PRACTICE FOR YOUR LICENSURE EXAM:Cooperative Learning Project Chapter 13 Creating A Productive Learning Environment CASE STUDY: A Contagious Situation Creating a Setting Conducive to Learning Arranging the Classroom A Establishing and Maintaining Productive Teacher--Student Relationships A Creating an Effective Psychological Climate A Setting Limits Planning Activities That Keep Students on Task A Monitoring What Students Are Doing Modifying Instructional Strategies A Taking Developmental Differences into Account Taking Individual And Group Differences into Account Coordinating Efforts with Others Working with Other Faculty Members A Working with the Community at Large Working with Parents Dealing with Misbehaviors Ignoring Behavior A Cueing Students A Discussing Problems Privately with Students A Teaching Self- Regulation Strategies A Conferring with Parents A Conducting Planned, Systematic Interventions A Taking Students' Cultural Backgrounds into Account Addressing Aggression and Violence at School A Three-Level Approach A Addressing Gang-Related Problems The Big Picture PRACTICE FOR YOUR LICENSURE EXAM:The Good Buddy ALBQ149_Frontmatter.qxp 9/1/09 3:32 PM Page viii Contents ix Chapter 14 Classroom Assessment Strategies CASE STUDY: The Math Test The Many Forms of Assessment Using Assessment for Different Purposes Guiding Instructional Decision Making A Diagnosing Learning and Performance Problems A Determining What Students Have Learned from Instruction A Evaluating the Quality of Instruction A Promoting Learning Important Qualities of Good Assessment Reliability A Standardization A Validity A Practicality Informal Assessment RSVP Characteristics of Informal Assessment Paper--Pencil Assessment Constructing the Assessment Instrument A Administering the Assessment A Scoring Students' Responses A RSVP Characteristics of Paper--Pencil Assessment Performance Assessment Choosing Appropriate Performance Tasks A Planning and Administering the Assessment A Scoring Students' Responses A RSVP Characteristics of Performance Assessment Additional Considerations in Formal Assessment Including Students in the Assessment Process A Teaching Testwiseness A Keeping Test Anxiety in Check A Encouraging Risk Taking A Evaluating an Assessment After the Fact: Item Analysis Taking Student Diversity into Account in Classroom Assessments Accommodating Group Differences A Accommodating Students with Special Needs The Big Picture PRACTICE FOR YOUR LICENSURE EXAM: Pick And Choose Chapter 15 Summarizing Students' Achievement and Abilities CASE STUDY: B in History Summarizing the Results of a Single Assessment Raw Scores A Criterion-Referenced Scores A Norm- Referenced Scores A Using Criterion-Referenced versus Norm-Referenced Scores in the Classroom Determining Final Class Grades Considering Improvement, Effort, and Extra Credit A Choosing Criterion-Referenced or Norm-Referenced Grades A Including Students in the Grading Process Using Portfolios Types and Purposes of Portfolios A Benefits and Limitations of Portfolios A Helping Students Construct Portfolios Standardized Tests Types of Standardized Tests A Technology and Assessment A Guidelines for Choosing and Using Standardized Tests A Interpreting Standardized Test Scores High-Stakes Testing and Accountability The U.S. No Child Left Behind Act A Problems with High- Stakes Testing A Potential Solutions Taking Student Diversity into Account Cultural Bias in Test Content A Cultural and Ethnic Differences A Language Differences and English Language Learners A Accommodating Students with Special Needs Confidentiality and Communication about Assessment Results Communicating Assessment Results to Students and Parents The Big Picture PRACTICE FOR YOUR LICENSURE EXAM: Can Johnny Read? Appendix A: Describing Associations with Correlation Coefficients Appendix B: Determining Reliability and Predictive Validity Appendix C: Matching Book and MyEducationLab Content to the Praxis Principles of Learning and Teaching (PLT) Tests Glossary References Name Index Subject Index Photo Credits
Jeanne Ellis Ormrod received her A.B. in psychology from Brown University and her M.S. and Ph.D. in educational psychology from The Pennsylvania State University. She earned licensure in school psychology through postdoctoral work at Temple University and the University of Colorado at Boulder and has worked as a middle school geography teacher and school psychologist. She was Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of Northern Colorado until 1998, when she moved east to return to her native New England. She is currently affiliated with the University of New Hampshire, where she occasionally teaches courses in educational psychology and research methods. She has published numerous research articles on cognition and memory, cognitive development, and giftedness, but she is probably best known for this textbook and four others: Human Learning (currently in its fifth edition); Essentials of Educational Psychology (currently in its second edition); Child Development and Education(co-authored with Teresa McDevitt, currently in its fourth edition); and Practical Research(co-authored with Paul Leedy, currently in its ninth edition). With her three children now grown and out on their own, she lives in New Hampshire with her husband Richard.