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Effective Teaching Methods

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Effective Teaching Methods

Research-Based Practice

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Effective Teaching Methods: Research-Based Practice by Gary D Borich
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Description

For graduate and undergraduate courses in general K-12 methods. The new edition of this popular text clearly achieves its stated goal: to prepare prospective teachers to meet the challenges of today's changing classrooms by providing effective, practical, research-based practices in an accessible, conversational style. Material is based on a quarter-century of actual, in-classroom research that makes it possible to replace anecdotal suggestions for good teaching with solidly research-grounded strategies empirically related to positive outcomes. The author shows future teachers not only "what" to do to meet today's teaching challenges, but "how" to do it through the experiences of real teachers in real classrooms.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: The Effective Teacher What Is an Effective Teacher? The Role-Model Definition The Psychological Characteristics Definition A New Direction Key Behaviors Contributing to Effective Teaching Lesson Clarity Instructional Variety Teacher Task Orientation Engagement in the Learning Process Student Success Rate Summary of Five Key Behaviors Some Helping Behaviors Related to Effective Teaching Using Student Ideas and Contributions Structuring The Art of Questioning Probing Teacher Affect Teaching Effectively with Diverse Learners and Content How Does Effective Teaching Differ with Learners Who Have Different Socioeconomic Levels, Culture, and Ethnicity? How Does Effective Teaching Differ Across Content Areas? The Complexity of Teaching Professional Teaching Standards Your Transition to the Real World of Teaching For Further Information Summing Up Key Terms Review Questions Field Experience and Practice Activities Digital Portfolio Activities Classroom Observation Activities Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation CHAPTER 2: Understanding Your Students Why Pay Attention to Individual Differences? Adaptive Teaching Differentiated Instruction The Effects of General Intelligence on Learning The Environmentalist Position The Hereditarian Position General Versus Specific Ability The Effects of Specific Abilities on Learning Multiple Intelligences Sternberg's Definition of Intelligence The Effects of Prior Achievement on Learning The Effects of Culture, SES and Language on Learning The Effects of Culture on Learning The Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Learning The Effects of Language on Learning The Effects of Personality and Learning Style Erikson's Crises of the School Years Learning Style The Effects of the Peer Group on Learning The Effects of Home Life and Social Context on Learning The Teacher's Role in Improving the Academic Success of All Learners Cultural, Linguistic, and SES Biases in the Classroom Final Word Summing Up Key Terms Review Questions Field Experience and Practice Activities Digital Portfolio Activities Classroom Observation Activities Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation CHAPTER 3: Goals, Standards and Objectives Goals, Standards and Objectives Tyler's Goal Development Approach The Origin of Educational Standards The Purpose of Objectives What Does Behavioral Mean? Steps in Preparing Behavioral Objectives Specifying the Learning Outcomes Identifying the Conditions Stating Criterion Levels Keeping Objectives Simple The Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Domains The Cognitive Domain The Affective Domain The Psychomotor Domain Some Misunderstandings About Behavioral Objectives Are Some Behaviors More Desirable Than Others? What Is an Authentic Behavior? Are Less Complex Behaviors Easier to Teach? Are Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Behaviors Mutually Exclusive? The Cultural Roots of Objectives Summing Up Key Terms Review Questions Field Experience and Practice Activities Digital Portfolio Activities Classroom Observation Activities Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation CHAPTER 4: Unit and Lesson Planning Teacher as Decision Maker Knowledge of Instructional Goals and Objectives Knowledge of the Learner Knowledge of Subject Matter Knowledge of Teaching Methods Summary of Inputs to Planning Reflective Practice and Tacit Knowledge Unit and Lesson Plans Making Planning Decisions Standards and Objectives Learners Content Outcomes Disciplinary and Interdisciplinary Unit Planning Disciplinary (Vertical) Unit Plans Interdisciplinary (Lateral) Unit Plans Making Lesson Plans Determining Where to Start Providing for Differentiated Instruction with Tutorial and Communication Technologies Events of Instruction Getting Started: Some Lesson Planning Questions 1. Gaining Attention (Anticipatory Set) 2. Informing Learners of the Objective (Anticipatory Set, Objectives, and Pur- pose) 3. Stimulating Recall of Prerequisite Learning (Review) 4. Presenting the Content (Input, Modeling) 5. Eliciting the Desired Behavior (Checking for Understanding, Guided Prac-tice) 6. Providing Feedback (Guided Practice, Closure) 7. Assessing the Behavior (Independent Practice) Example Lesson Plans Summing Up Key Terms Review Questions Field Experience and Practice Activities Digital Portfolio Activities Classroom Observation Activity Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation CHAPTER 5: Classroom Management I: Establishing the Learning Climate Earning Trust and Becoming a Leader the Old-Fashioned Way Expert Power Referent Power Legitimate Power Reward Power Coercive Power Using Power Stages of Group Development Stage 1: Forming Stage 2: Storming Stage 3: Norming Stage 4: Performing Establishing an Effective Classroom Climate The Social Environment The Organizational Environment Establishing Rules and Procedures Problem Areas in Classroom Management Monitoring Students Making Transitions Giving Assignments Bringing Closure Culturally Responsive Classroom Management I Planning Your First Day Before the Bell Introducing Yourself Administrative Business Rules and Expectations Introducing Your Subject Closure Summing Up Key Terms Review Questions Field Experience and Practice Activities Digital Portfolio Activity Classroom Observation Activities Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation CHAPTER 6: Classroom Management II: Promoting Student Engagement Systems of Classroom Management The Humanist Tradition in Classroom Management Ginott's Congruent Communication Glasser's Cooperative Learning The Applied Behavior Analysis Tradition in Classroom Management Behavior Modification The Classroom Management Tradition An Integrated Approach to Classroom Management Low-Profile Classroom Management Dealing with Persistent Disruptive Behavior Responses to Misbehavior Reinforcement Theory Applied in the Classroom Punishment The Parent--Teacher Conference Conducting the Parent Conference Evaluating the Parent Conference The Influence of Home and Family on Classroom Behavior Problems Culturally Responsive Classroom Management II Summing Up Key Terms Review Questions Field Experience and Practice Activities Digital Portfolio Activities Classroom Observation Activities Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation CHAPTER 7: Teaching Strategies for Direct Instruction Categories of Teaching and Learning Introduction to Direct Instruction Strategies When Is Direct Instruction Appropriate? An Example of Direct Instruction Daily Review and Checking the Previous Day's Work Presenting and Structuring Part--Whole Relationships Sequential Relationships Combinations of Relationships Comparative Relationships Using the Methods Guided Student Practice Prompting Modeling Feedback and Correctives Correct, Quick, and Firm Correct but Hesitant Incorrect Because of Carelessness Incorrect Because of Lack of Knowledge Strategies for Incorrect Responses Independent Practice Weekly and Monthly Reviews Other Forms of Direct Instruction Culturally Response Direct Instruction Summing Up Key Terms Review Questions Field Experience and Practice Activities Digital Portfolio Activities Classroom Observation Activities Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation CHAPTER 8: Teaching Strategies for Indirect Instruction The Cognitive Processes of Learning Reading Writing Mathematics and Science Social Studies Comparing Direct and Indirect Instruction Teaching Strategies for Indirect Instruction An Example of Indirect Instruction Content Organization Concept Learning Inquiry Learning Problem-Centered Learning Conceptual Movement: Induction and Deduction Applying Induction and Deduction Using Examples and Nonexamples The Use of Questions Learner Experience and Use of Student Ideas The Changing View Productively Using Student Ideas Student Self-Evaluation Use of Group Discussion Comparison of Direct and Indirect Instruction Culturally Responsive Indirect Instruction A Final Word Summing Up Key Terms Review Questions Field Experience and Practice Activities Digital Portfolio Activities Classroom Observation Activities Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation CHAPTER 9: Questioning Strategies What Is a Question? What Consumes 80% of Class Time? Are We Asking the Right Questions? What Are the Purposes of Questions? What Are Convergent and Divergent Questions? What Does the Research Say About Asking Convergent and Divergent Questions? Who Are the Targets of Questions? What Sequences of Questions Are Used? What Levels of Questions Are Used? Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Summary of Question Types What Is a Probe? How Should You Use Wait Time? What is Culturally Responsive Questioning? Wait Time Rhythm Participation Structure Language What Are Common Problems in Using Questions? Do You Use Complex, Ambiguous, or Double Questions? Do You Accept Only the Answers You Expect? Why Are You Asking This Question? Do You Answer the Question Yourself? Do You Use Questions as Punishment? Summing Up Key Terms Review Questions Field Experience and Practice Activities Digital Portfolio Activities Classroom Observation Activity Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation CHAPTER 10: Self-Directed Learning Self-Directed Learning Metacognition Teacher Mediation The Zone of Maximum Response Opportunity Hitting the Zone of Maximum Response Opportunity Functional Errors Reciprocal Teaching Social Dialogue Versus Class Discussion The Role of Inner Speech Sample Dialogues of Self-Directed Learning Steps in Teaching Self-Directed Inquiry to Individual Learners Other Cognitive Strategies Mnemonics Elaboration/Organization (Note Taking) Comprehension Monitoring Problem-Solving Strategies Project-Based Learning The Role of Tasks in Project-Based Learning The Role of the Learner in Project-Based Learning The Role of the Teacher in Project-Based Learning Culturally Responsive Self-directed Learning Summing Up Key Terms Review Questions Field Experience and Practice Activities Digital Portfolio Activities Classroom Observation Activities Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation CHAPTER 11: Cooperative Learning and the Collaborative Process Outcomes of Cooperation Attitudes and Values Prosocial Behavior Alternative Perspectives and Viewpoints Integrated Identity Higher Thought Processes Components of a Cooperative Learning Activity Teacher--Student Interaction Student--Student Interaction Task Specialization and Materials Role Expectations and Responsibilities Establishing a Cooperative Task Structure in Your Classroom 1. Specifying the Goal 2. Structuring the Task 3. Teaching and Evaluating the Collaborative Process 4. Monitoring Group Performance 5. Debriefing Team-Oriented Cooperative Learning Activities Student Teams--Achievement Division Teams-Games-Tournaments Jigsaw II Team-Assisted Individualization Overview of Team-Oriented Cooperative Learning Activities Culturally Responsive Cooperative Learning Summing Up Key Terms Review Questions Field Experience and Practice Activities Digital Portfolio Activities Classroom Observation Activity Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation CHAPTER 12: Assessing Learners Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests Comparing Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests The Test Blueprint Objective Test Items True-False Items Matching Items Multiple-Choice Items Higher-Level Multiple-Choice Questions Completion Items Advantages and Disadvantages of Objective-Item Formats Essay Test Items Extended-Response Questions Restricted-Response Questions When Should You Use Essay Questions? Some Criteria for Scoring Essay Items Validity and Reliability Types of Validity Types of Reliability Marks and Marking Systems Comparison with Other Students Comparison with Established Standards Comparison with Aptitude Comparison of Achievement with Effort Comparison of Achievement with Improvement Standardized Tests Helping Students Prepare for Standardized Tests Performance Assessment The Portfolio Rationale for the Portfolio Step 1: Deciding on the Purposes for a Portfolio Step 2: Identifying Cognitive Skills and Dispositions Step 3: Deciding Who Will Plan the Portfolio Step 4: Deciding Which Products to Put in the Portfolio and How Many Samples of Each Product Step 5: Building the Portfolio Rubrics Performance and Portfolio Assessment and Report Card Grades Plan a Portfolio Conference Assessing the Academic Progress of Special Learners in the Heterogeneous Classroom Summing Up Key Terms Review Questions Field Experience and Practice Activities Digital Portfolio Activities Classroom Observation Activities Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation Appendix A: Teacher Concerns Checklist Appendix B: Answers to Chapter Questions Appendix C: Higher-Order Thinking and Problem-Solving Checklist Appendix D: Answers to Short-Answer and Discrete Multiple-Choice Questions Glossary References Name Index Subject Index

Author Biography

Gary Borich is professor and a Cissy McDaniel Parker Endowed Fellow at The University of Texas at Austin. He is author of 13 books in Teacher Education and Educational Psychology, including Effective Teaching Methods: Research-Based Practice, 7e (Allyn & Bacon, 2010); Observation Skills for Effective Teaching, 6e (Allyn & Bacon, 2010) and Educational Testing and Measurement: Classroom Applications and Practice, 9e (Wiley, 2009)
Release date Australia
February 15th, 2010
Author
Country of Publication
United States
Edition
United States ed of 7th revised ed
Illustrations
black & white illustrations, colour line drawings, black & white tables, colour tables, figures
Imprint
Allyn & Bacon
Pages
504
Dimensions
203x254x23
ISBN-13
9780131367180
Product ID
3833048

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