Covering global threats such as climate change, population growth, and loss of biodiversity, as well as national, state, and local problems of environmental pollution, energy use, and natural resource use and conservation, this exciting and unique text covers U.S. policy-making processes, the legislative and administrative settings for policy decisions, the role of interest groups and public opinion in environmental politics, and the public policies that result.
Offering a succinct overview and assessment of U.S. environmental policy and politics, Kraft encourages students to judge environmental problems and policy actions for themselves by summarizing extensive collections of scientific studies, government reports, and policy analyses to convey the nature of environmental problems, progress and limitations in dealing with them, and the implications of keeping or revising present policies. Table of Contents
Preface Chapter 1: Environmental Problems and Politics Environmental Policy and Politics
Perspectives on Environmental Problems Scientific Knowledge and Its Use Economics and Incentives Environmental Values and Ethics The Role of Government and Politics Democracy, Politics, and Environmental Policy Defining Environmental Policy Policy Typologies The Breadth of Environmental Policy Environmental Problems and Public Policy Defining the Problems: The Nature of Environmental Risks Coping with Environmental Risks Public Policy Responses Conclusions Discussion Questions Suggested Readings Endnotes Chapter 2: Judging the State of the Environment Air Quality Gains in Air Quality and Remaining Problems Indoor Air Quality Acid Precipitation CFCs and the Stratospheric Ozone Layer Water Quality Pollution of Surface Waters Drinking Water Quality Toxic Chemicals and Hazardous Wastes Toxic Chemicals and Health Effects Hazardous Wastes Contaminated Federal Facilities Radioactive Wastes Solid Waste and Consumer Waste Energy Use and Climate Change The Nature of Energy Problems Fossil Fuels and the Threat of Climate Change Biological Diversity and Habitat Loss Biodiversity Loss and Implications Policy Actions and Effects Population Growth Population and Sustainable Development Growth Rates and Projected Population Increases Conclusions Discussion Questions Suggested Readings Endnotes Chapter 3: Making Environmental Policy Understanding Environmental Politics The Policy Process Model Agenda Setting Policy Formulation Policy Legitimation Policy Implementation Policy and Program Evaluation Policy Change Patterns in Environmental Policymaking Characteristics of U.S. Government and Politics Constitutional and Political Features Institutional Fragmentation and Policy Stalemate The Benefits of Dispersed Power Conclusions Discussion Questions Suggested Readings Endnotes Chapter 4: The Evolution of Environmental Policy and Politics
Natural Resources and Environmental Policies in Historical Perspective The Settlement and "Conquest" of Nature The Conservation Movement and Advances in Public Health From the New Deal to the Environmental Movement The Modern Environmental Movement and Policy Achievements Environmental Interest Groups Public Opinion and the Environment Environmental Issues in Election Campaigns Political Reaction to Environmentalism Environmental Policy in the Reagan and Bush Administrations Clinton and Gore Reform Environmental Policy and Battle Congress George W. Bush and the Environment Conclusions Discussion Questions Suggested Readings Endnotes Chapter 5: Environmental Protection Policy: Controlling Pollution The Contours of Environmental Protection Policy The Clean Air Act The Clean Water Act The Safe Drinking Water Act The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act The Toxic Substances Control Act The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act The Institutional Context of Policy Implementation The EPA's Organization, Budget, and Staff Working with the States Political Support and Opposition Setting Environmental Standards Environmental Goals and Objectives Environmental Quality Criteria Setting Quality Standards Emissions Standards Balancing Statutory Goals and Costs Adopting and Enforcing Regulations Administrative Rule Making Enforcement and Compliance White House Oversight Conclusions Discussion Questions Suggested Readings Endnotes Chapter 6: Energy and Natural Resource Policies Energy Policy: Goals and Means Indirect Policy Impacts Shifting Energy Priorities The Energy Policy Cycle: 1973-1989 Carter's National Energy Plan and Conservation Gains Reagan's Nonpolicy on Energy Energy Policy for the Twenty-First Century The Bush Administration's National Energy Strategy The Clinton Administration Tries Its Hand Energy Policy Under George W. Bush State and Local Energy Initiatives Natural Resources and Policy Change Environmental Stewardship or Economic Development? The Environmentalist Challenge to Resource Development Natural Resource Policies and Agencies Managing the Nation's Forests Battles over Wilderness Governing the Range BLM Lands and the Sagebrush Rebellion Other Protected Lands and Agencies Environmental Impacts and Natural Resources Decision Making The Endangered Species Act The National Environmental Policy Act Conclusions Discussion Questions Suggested Readings Endnotes Chapter 7: Evaluating Environmental Policy Critiques of Environmental Policy Environmental Policy Evaluation Program Outcomes Examining Decision Making and Institutions Signs of Progress Environmental Protection Policies Natural Resource Policies Data Assessment and Public Dialogue Costs, Benefits, and Risks Comparing Risks and Setting Priorities Controversies over Cost-Benefit Analysis and Risk Assessment Environmentalists' Use of Economic Analysis Jobs, the Economy, and the Environment Employment, Business Costs, and Environmental Policy Seeking Common Ground: Toward Environmental Sustainability Environmental Justice Reforming Environmental Regulation The Case for Policy Alternatives Assessing New Policy Approaches New Directions in Energy and Natural Resources Policy The Appeal of User Fees Privatization of Public Land Social Cost Accounting Government Purchasing Power Ecosystem Management Conclusions Discussion Questions Suggested Readings Endnotes Chapter 8: Environmental Policy and Politics
for the Twenty-First Century Environmental Goals and Policy Choices: Domestic and Global Three Generations of Environmental Policy and Politics
Toward Sustainable Development? The President's Council on Sustainable Development Sustainable Development at State and Local Levels Business and the Environment Citizens and the Environment International Environmental Policy and Politics
Environmental Institutions and Policies Institutional Capacity for Global Sustainable Development Political Conflict and Global Environmental Policy Climate Change Protection of Biological Diversity Population Growth and Economic Development Conclusions Discussion Questions Suggested Readings Endnotes References Index