Esophageal cancer is a malignant tumour of the esophagus, the muscular tube that transports food from the mouth to the stomach. Esophageal cancer occurs most often in men over 50 years old. There are two main types of esophageal cancer, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. These two types are distinguished by the way they look under the microscope. Squamous cell cancer is associated with smoking and alcohol consumption. The incidence of this disease in the United States has remained relatively constant, while the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus has risen dramatically. Barrett's esophagus, a complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), is a risk factor for the development of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus include male gender, obesity, western diet, and smoking. This book presents new advances in this field of cancer research.