For undergraduate junior/senior level courses in Behavioral Neuroscience, Physiology of Behavior, Biopsychology, Human Neuropsychology, or Physiological Psychology. Foundations of Behavioral Neuroscience offers a briefer, sixteen chapter introduction to the foundations of physiology, incorporating the latest studies and research in the rapidly changing fields of neuroscience and physiological psychology. The text uses many human examples, case studies, and MyPsychKit (www.mypsychkit.com) featuring Carlson's Neuroscience Animations to help make the material interesting and relevant to student readers. Foundations of Behavioral Neuroscience is ideal for the instructor who wants a briefer text with a balance of human and animal cases.
Table of Contents
Contents Chapter 1 Origins of Behavioral Neuroscience 1 PROLOGUE A A A Rene's Inspiration 2 Understanding Human Consciousness: A Physiological Approach 3 Split Brains 3 The Nature of Behavioral Neuroscience 6 The Goals of Research 6 Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience 7 Natural Selection and Evolution 10 Functionalism and the Inheritance of Traits 10 Evolution of the Human Species 12 Evolution of Large Brains 14 Ethical Issues in Research with Animals 16 Careers in Neuroscience 19 Strategies for Learning 20 EPILOGUE A A A Models of Brain Functions 22 Key Concepts 23 Suggested Readings 23 Additional Resources 23 Chapter 2 Structure and Functions of Cells of the Nervous System 24 PROLOGUE A A A Unresponsive Muscles 25 Cells of the Nervous System 26 Neurons 26 Supporting Cells 30 The Blood--Brain Barrier 33 Communication Within a Neuron 34 Neural Communication: An Overview 34 Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons 36 The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces 38 The Action Potential 40 Conduction of the Action Potential 42 Communication Between Neurons 45 Structure of Synapses 45 Release of Neurotransmitter 46 Activation of Receptors 47 Postsynaptic Potentials 48 Termination of Postsynaptic Potentials 50 Effects of Postsynaptic Potentials: Neural Integration 51 Autoreceptors 52 Axoaxonic Synapses 52 Nonsynaptic Chemical Communication 52 EPILOGUE A A A Myasthenia Gravis 54 Key Concepts 55 Suggested Readings 55 Additional Resources 55 Chapter 3 Structure of the Nervous System 56 PROLOGUE A A A The Left Is Gone 57 Basic Features of the Nervous System 57 An Overview 60 Meninges 60 The Ventricular System and Production of Cerebrospinal Fluid 60 The Central Nervous System 63 Development of the Central Nervous System 63 The Forebrain 67 The Midbrain 76 The Hindbrain 78 The Spinal Cord 78 The Peripheral Nervous System 80 Spinal Nerves 80 Cranial Nerves 81 The Autonomic Nervous System 83 EPILOGUE A A A Unilateral Neglect 85 Key Concepts 87 Suggested Readings 87 Additional Resources 87 Chapter 4 Psychopharmacology 88 PROLOGUE A A A A Contaminated Drug 89 Principles of Psychopharmacology 89 Pharmacokinetics 90 Drug Effectiveness 92 Effects of Repeated Administration 93 Placebo Effects 94 Sites of Drug Action 95 Effects on Production of Neurotransmitters 96 Effects on Storage and Release of Neurotransmitters 97 Effects on Receptors 97 Effects on Reuptake or Destruction of Neurotransmitters 98 Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators 99 Acetylcholine 99 The Monoamines 101 Amino Acids 106 Peptides 108 Lipids 109 Nucleosides 110 Soluble Gases 111 EPILOGUE A A A Helpful Hints from a Tragedy 113 Key Concepts 114 Suggested Readings 114 Additional Resources 114 Chapter 5 Methods and Strategies of Research 115 PROLOGUE A A A Heart Repaired, Brain Damaged 116 Experimental Ablation 117 Evaluating the Behavioral Effects of Brain Damage 117 Producing Brain Lesions 117 Stereotaxic Surgery 119 Histological Methods 121 Tracing Neural Connections 122 Studying the Structure of the Living Human Brain 125 Recording and Stimulating Neural Activity 128 Recording Neural Activity 128 Recording the Brain's Metabolic and Synaptic Activity 131 Stimulating Neural Activity 133 Neurochemical Methods 136 Finding Neurons that Produce Particular Neurochemicals 136 Localizing Particular Receptors 137 Measuring Chemicals Secreted in the Brain 138 Genetic Methods 140 Twin Studies 140 Adoption Studies 141 Targeted Mutations 142 Antisense Oligonucleotides 142 EPILOGUE A A A Watch the Brain Waves 143 Key Concepts 144 Suggested Readings 145 Additional Resources 145 Chapter 6 Vision 146 PROLOGUE A A A Seeing Without Perceiving 147 The Stimulus 148 Anatomy of the Visual System 149 The Eyes 149 Photoreceptors 151 Connections Between Eye and Brain 152 Coding of Visual Information in the Retina 154 Coding of Light and Dark 154 Coding of Color 155 Analysis of Visual Information: Role of the Striate Cortex 158 Anatomy of the Striate Cortex 158 Orientation and Movement 158 Spatial Frequency 159 Retinal Disparity 160 Color 160 Modular Organization of the Striate Cortex 161 Analysis of Visual Information: Role of the Visual Association Cortex 162 Two Streams of Visual Analysis 162 Perception of Color 164 Perception of Form 166 Perception of Movement 169 Perception of Spatial Location 172 EPILOGUE A A A Case Studies 175 Key Concepts 176 Suggested Readings 176 Additional Resources 176 Chapter 7 Audition, the Body Senses, and the Chemical Senses 177 PROLOGUE A A A All in Her Head? 178 Audition 178 The Stimulus 179 Anatomy of the Ear 179 Auditory Hair Cells and the Transduction of Auditory Information 181 The Auditory Pathway 182 Perception of Pitch 183 Perception of Timbre 186 Perception of Spatial Location 186 Perception of Complex Sounds 188 Vestibular System 191 Anatomy of the Vestibular Apparatus 192 The Vestibular Pathway 193 Somatosenses 194 The Stimuli 194 Anatomy of the Skin and Its Receptive Organs 195 Perception of Cutaneous Stimulation 195 The Somatosensory Pathways 198 Perception of Pain 199 Gustation 201 The Stimuli 201 Anatomy of the Taste Buds and Gustatory Cells 202 Perception of Gustatory Information 202 The Gustatory Pathway 203 Olfaction 204 The Stimulus 206 Anatomy of the Olfactory Apparatus 206 Transduction of Olfactory Information 207 Perception of Specific Odors 207 EPILOGUE A A A Natural Analgesia 209 Key Concepts 210 Suggested Readings 211 Additional Resources 211 Chapter 8 Sleep and Biological Rhythms 212 PROLOGUE A A A Waking Nightmares 213 A Physiological and Behavioral Description of Sleep 213 Disorders of Sleep 217 Insomnia 217 Narcolepsy 218 REM Sleep Behavior Disorder 220 Problems Associated with Slow-Wave Sleep 220 Why Do We Sleep? 221 Functions of Slow-Wave Sleep 222 Functions of REM Sleep 223 Sleep and Learning 224 Physiological Mechanisms of Sleep and Waking 226 Chemical Control of Sleep 226 Neural Control of Arousal 227 Neural Control of Slow-Wave Sleep 230 Neural Control of REM Sleep 232 Biological Clocks 236 Circadian Rhythms and Zeitgebers 236 The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus 236 Changes in Circadian Rhythms: Shift Work and Jet Lag 239 EPILOGUE A A A Functions of Dreams 241 Key Concepts 242 Suggested Readings 243 Additional Resources 243 Chapter 9 Reproductive Behavior 244 PROLOGUE A A A From Boy to Girl 245 Sexual Development 245 Production of Gametes and Fertilization 245 Development of the Sex Organs 246 Sexual Maturation 249 Hormonal Control of Sexual Behavior 252 Hormonal Control of Female Reproductive Cycles 252 Hormonal Control of Sexual Behavior of Laboratory Animals 253 Organizational Effects of Androgens on Behavior: Masculinization and Defeminization 255 Effects of Pheromones 255 Human Sexual Behavior 258 Sexual Orientation 259 Neural Control of Sexual Behavior 264 Males 264 Females 266 Formation of Pair Bonds 267 Parental Behavior 269 Maternal Behavior of Rodents 269 Hormonal Control of Maternal Behavior 270 Neural Control of Maternal Behavior 271 Neural Control of Paternal Behavior 271 EPILOGUE A A A From Boy to Girl and Back Again 272 Key Concepts 273 Suggested Readings 274 Additional Resources 274 Chapter 10 Emotion 275 PROLOGUE A A A Intellect and Emotion 276 Emotions as Response Patterns 276 Fear 277 Anger, Aggression, and Impulse Control 281 Communication of Emotions 288 Facial Expression of Emotions: Innate Responses 288 Neural Basis of the Communication of Emotions: Recognition 290 Neural Basis of the Communication of Emotions: Expression 292 Feelings of Emotions 295 The James-Lange Theory 295 Feedback from Simulated Emotions 296 EPILOGUE A A A Mr. V. Revisited 298 Key Concepts 299 Suggested Readings 300 Additional Resources 300 Chapter 11 Ingestive Behavior 301 PROLOGUE A A A Out of Control 302 Physiological Regulatory Mechanisms 302 Drinking 304 Some Facts About Fluid Balance 304 Two Types of Thirst 305 Eating: Some Facts About Metabolism 309 What Starts a Meal? 312 Signals from the Environment 312 Signals from the Stomach 312 Metabolic Signals 313 What Stops a Meal? 315 Gastric Factors 315 Intestinal Factors 315 Liver Factors 316 Insulin 317 Long-Term Satiety: Signals from Adipose Tissue 317 Brain Mechanisms 318 Brain Stem 318 Hypothalamus 319 Obesity 323 Possible Causes 323 Treatment 326 Anorexia Nervosa/Bulimia Nervosa 330 Possible Causes 330 Treatment 332 EPILOGUE A A A An Insatiable Appetite 334 Key Concepts 334 Suggested Readings 335 Additional Resources 335 Chapter 12 Learning and Memory 336 PROLOGUE A A A Every Day Is Alone 337 The Nature of Learning 337 Synaptic Plasticity: Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression 341 Induction of Long-Term Potentiation 341 Role of NMDA Receptors 343 Mechanisms of Synaptic Plasticity 345 Long-Term Depression 348 Perceptual Learning 349 Classical Conditioning 351 Instrumental Conditioning 353 Role of the Basal Ganglia 353 Reinforcement 355 Relational Learning 358 Human Anterograde Amnesia 358 Spared Learning Abilities 360 Declarative and Nondeclarative Memories 361 Anatomy of Anterograde Amnesia 363 Role of the Hippocampal Formation in Memory Consolidation 363 Episodic and Semantic Memories 365 Spatial Memory 366 Relational Learning in Laboratory Animals 367 Role of Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Learning 372 EPILOGUE A A A What Causes Confabulation? 374 Key Concepts 375 Suggested Readings 375 Additional Resources 376 Chapter 13 Human Communication 377 Speech Production and Comprehension: Brain Mechanisms 378 Lateralization 379 Speech Production 380 Speech Comprehension 382 Aphasia in Deaf People 392 Prosody: Rhythm, Tone, and Emphasis in Speech 393 Stuttering 394 Disorders of Reading and Writing 397 Pure Alexia 397 Toward an Understanding of Reading 399 Toward an Understanding of Writing 404 Developmental Dyslexias 405 EPILOGUE A A A Speech Sounds and the Left Hemisphere 408 Key Concepts 408 Suggested Readings 409 Additional Resources 409 Chapter 14 Neurological Disorders 410 PROLOGUE A A A It Started with Her Foot 411 Tumors 411 Seizure Disorders 413 Cerebrovascular Accidents 416 Disorders of Development 420 Toxic Chemicals 420 Inherited Metabolic Disorders 421 Down Syndrome 422 Degenerative Disorders 423 Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies 423 Parkinson's Disease 425 Huntington's Disease 429 Alzheimer's Disease 430 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 434 Multiple Sclerosis 435 Disorders Caused by Infectious Diseases 437 EPILOGUE A A A Seizure Surgery 439 Key Concepts 440 Suggested Readings 440 Additional Resources 441 Chapter 15 Schizophrenia, Affective Disorders, and Anxiety Disorders 442 PROLOGUE A A A Anxiety Surgery 443 Schizophrenia 443 Description 443 Heritability 445 Pharmacology of Schizophrenia: The Dopamine Hypothesis 445 Schizophrenia as a Neurological Disorder 446 Major Affective Disorders 455 Description 455 Heritability 456 Biological Treatments 457 The Monoamine Hypothesis 460 Evidence for Brain Abnormalities 461 Role of Neurogenesis 463 Role of Circadian Rhythms 464 Anxiety Disorders 467 Panic Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Social Anxiety Disorder 467 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 469 EPILOGUE A A A Prefrontal Lobotomy 474 Key Concepts 474 Suggested Readings 475 Additional Resources 475 Chapter 16 Autistic, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity, Stress, and Substance Abuse Disorders 476 PROLOGUE A A A A Sudden Craving 477 Autistic Disorder 477 Description 477 Possible Causes 478 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder 481 Description 481 Possible Causes 482 Stress Disorders 483 Physiology of the Stress Response 483 Health Effects of Long-Term Stress 485 Effects of Stress on the Brain 485 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 487 Stress and Infectious Diseases 488 Substance Abuse Disorders 490 What Is Addiction? 490 Commonly Abused Drugs 496 Heredity and Drug Abuse 503 Therapy for Drug Abuse 504 EPILOGUE A A A Classically Conditioned Craving 508 Key Concepts 509 Suggested Readings 509 Additional Resources 510 References 511 Name Index 537 Subject Index
Neil Carlson, U Mass Amherst Professor Emeritus at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Neil Carlson's research has focused on the relationship between the brain and behavior--specifically, the role of the limbic system in learning and species-typical behavior. Dr. Carlson received his undergraduate degree and Ph.D. from the University of Illinois. In addition to writing Foundations of Behavioral Neuroscience, Dr. Carlson is also the author of Physiology of Behavior and co-author of Psychology: The Science of Behavior. Dr. Carlson's books have been translated into Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, German, Hebrew, Japanese, Chinese, and Korean.