Who perpetrates hate crimes and why? How do hate groups recruit members? Why does so much controversy surround hate crime legislation? While hate crimes are becoming a popular area of academic study, many important questions about hate crimes remain unanswered. "Hate Crimes: Causes, Controls, and Controversies" addresses the many facets of hate crimes, providing a comprehensive examination of this complex problem. Author Phyllis B. Gerstenfeld explores the causes of prejudice, the history and operation of hate crime legislation, the activities of organized extremist groups, the international manifestations and solutions to hate crimes, and the consequences of hate crimes upon victims and communities. Considering a broad range of issues from a variety of perspectives, this multidisciplinary text includes the latest legal developments and cutting-edge social research.
Table of Contents
Preface Second Edition Preface Acknowledgments 1. Introduction Overview of This book Goals of This book 2. The Whys and Hows of Hate Crime Laws Punishing Hate Before Hate Crime Laws Arguments for Having Hate Crime Laws The Birth of Hate Crimes Hate Crime Laws Today Hate Speech NARRATIVE PORTRAIT: THE ADL PERSPECTIVE ON HATE CRIMES Conclusion Discussion Questions Internet Exercises 3. The Hate Debate: Constitutional and Policy Problems Hate Crime Laws and the Constitution Which Groups Should Be Protected? Identifying and Prosecuting Hate Crimes Paradoxical Effects of Hate Crime Laws NARRATIVE PORTRAIT: PROSECUTING HATE CRIMES Conclusion Discussion Questions Internet Exercises 4. Committing Hate: Who and Why The Offender Profile The Psychology of Prejudice NARRATIVE PORTRAIT: GROWING UP RACIST, I What Makes a Bigot? NARRATIVE PORTRAIT: GROWING UP RACIST, II Why Do People Join Organized Hate Groups? Conclusion Discussion Questions Internet Exercises 5. Organized Hate What Is a Hate Group? Hate Group Typologies Major American Hate Groups NARRATIVE PORTRAIT: AT A KLAN RALLY, I Hate Group Ideologies Hate Group Recruitment and Defection Hate Group Activities Women in Organized Hate Conclusion NARRATIVE PORTRAIT: AT A KLAN RALLY, II Discussion Questions Internet Exercises 6. Hate Crime Victims Problems in Identifying Hate Crime Victims Official Hate Crime Data Advocacy Group Data Hate Crimes Against African Americans Anti-Semitic Hate Crimes Hate Crimes Against LGBT People NARRATIVE PORTRAIT: A VICTIM'S TESTIMONY Other Victims NARRATIVE PORTRAIT: AFTERMATH OF A MURDER Conclusion Discussion Questions Internet Exercises 7. Fighting Hate The Psychology of Reducing Prejudice Antihate Groups Government Initiatives for Fighting Hate NARRATIVE PORTRAIT: A MOTHER FIGHTS HATE Other Antihate Approaches Dealing With Hate Crime Offenders Assessing Efforts to Fight Hate Conclusion NARRATIVE PORTRAIT: PORTRAIT OF AN OFFENDER IN TREATMENT Discussion Questions Internet Exercises 8. Global Hate: International Problems and Solutions Distinguishing Hate Crimes From Other Events The Narrow Study of Global Hate The Rise of Nationalism and the Radical Right Four Countries' Approaches to Hate Crimes NARRATIVE PORTRAIT: ETHNIC CLEANSING IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA A Global Hate Network Policing Hate Across Borders NARRATIVE PORTRAIT: WHEN HATE LEADS TO GENOCIDE Conclusion Discussion Questions Internet Exercises 9. The Future of Hate New Research Better Data Collection Law Enforcement Responses Legislation Globalized Hate Fighting Hate Appendix A: Selected International Hate Crime Laws Appendix B: Selected Resources on Hate Crimes Appendix C: Film Suggestions Conclusion Discussion Questions Internet Exercises References Index About the Author
Phyllis B. Gerstenfeld has a BA in psychology from Reed College, an MA and a PhD in psychology from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and a JD from the University of Nebraska. She is a professor and chair of Criminal Justice at California State University, Stanislaus, where she has taught a class on hate crimes since 1994. In addition to hate crimes, her research interests include juvenile justice, capital punishment, and psychology and law.