The sequencing of the human genome reveals our complete complement of genetic material. The sequenced human genome is one of the most international biomedical research projects ever, which is important in our current often all-too-fractured world. This book defines the function of all "unknown" human genes, delineates the functional and phenotypic significance of human genetic variants in humans, and explores the functions of the vast non-genic regions of the human genome. Human genome sequencing has revealed a great opportunity to deeply investigate the biology and evolution of the sex chromosome pair at a more global level, allowing new frontiers in the genetics research, such as a detailed knowledge of the sequence and the gene content of these chromosomes. This book provides the most current research done in this area.