Musculoskeletal (MSK) radiology is a radiological subspecialty that has expanded its knowledge base and imaging capabilities with the advent of MRI, multi/detector CT, ult- sound, and PET. Prior to the advent of MRI, MSK radiologists used plain flm X-rays and arthrograms as their primary tools. The subspecialty has progressed from primary im- ing of osseous structures and indirect imaging of joint spaces, to direct imaging of soft tissue structures with direct visualization and fne defnition of MSK structures. A specialized MSK radiologist requires a sound knowledge of anatomy, pathophysi- ogy, orthopedic surgical techniques, and advancements in imaging modalities. MSK im- ing involves all aspects about anatomy, function, disease states, and aspects of interventional radiology appertaining to the MSK system including imaging in orthopedics, trauma, rheumatology, metabolic and endocrine diseases, as well as aspects of pediatrics, oncology, and sports imaging.
Subspecialty training in MSK radiology must ensure competence to obtain experience in the following techniques: plain radiography, ultrasonography, CT, MRI, nuclear me- cine, bone densitometry, and fuoroscopic procedures including arthrography. MSK ra- ologists must be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of the different imaging methods in each pathological condition and choose the appropriate imaging technique and/or the appropriate sequence in the investigation of specifc clinical problems.