Neuroscience is one field of the natural sciences that has produced millions of items of experimental data. It has provided a lot of knowledge about the basic physical and chemical processes in and between nerve cells. However, neuroscience has provided little understanding of the functional principles that make our brain what it is: an organ with a huge memory, which finds relationships between the contents of memory, which is able to learn functions, even for those for which it was not constructed, e.g. reading. This book deals with the diagnosis of deficits and the effects training (i.e. repetition of specified tasks) in the domain of auditory and visual perception as well as in the control of eye movements. Not only are the diagnostic aspects covered but also the therapeutic possibilities are described insofar as they are already established and evaluated. It will also be shown that successful training of functional deficits transfers to learning at school.