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Machine Design



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Machine Design by Robert L Norton
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For courses in Machine Design. Machine Design, 4/e, presents the subject matter in an up-to-date and thorough manner with a strong design emphasis. This textbook emphasizes both failure theory and analysis as well as emphasizing the synthesis and design aspects of machine elements. The book points out the commonality of the analytical approaches needed to design a wide variety of elements and emphasizes the use of computer-aided engineering as an approach to the design and analysis of these classes of problems.

Table of Contents

PART I FUNDAMENTALS 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN 1.1 Design Machine Design Introduction to Design Machine Iteration 1.2 A Design Process 1.3 Problem Formulation and Calculation Definition Stage Preliminary Design Stage Detailed Design Stage Documentation Stage 1.4 The Engineering Model Estimation and First-Order Analysis The Engineering Sketch 1.5 Computer-Aided Design and Engineering Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) Computational Accuracy 1.6 The Engineering Report 1.7 Factors of Safety and Design Codes Factor of Safety Choosing a Safety Factor Design and Safety Codes 1.8 Statistical Considerations 1.9 Units 1.10 Summary 1.11 References 1.12 Web References 1.13 Bibliography 1.14 Problems CHAPTER 2 MATERIALS AND PROCESSES 2.0 Introduction 2.1 Material-Property Definitions The Tensile Test Ductility and Brittleness The Compression Test The Bending Test The Torsion Test Fatigue Strength and Endurance Limit Impact Resistance Fracture Toughness Creep and Temperature Effects 2.2 The Statistical Nature of Material Properties 2.3 Homogeneity and Isotropy 2.4 Hardness Heat Treatment Surface (Case) Hardening Heat Treating Nonferrous Materials Mechanical Forming and Hardening 2.5 Coatings and Surface Treatments Galvanic Action Electroplating Electroless Plating Anodizing Plasma-Sprayed Coatings Chemical Coatings 2.6 General Properties of Metals Cast Iron Cast Steels Wrought Steels Steel Numbering Systems Aluminum Titanium Magnesium Copper Alloys 2.7 General Properties of Nonmetals Polymers Ceramics Composites 2.8 Selecting Materials 2.9 Summary 2.10 References 2.11 Web References 2.12 Bibliography 2.13 Problems CHAPTER 3 LOAD DETERMINATION 3.0 Introduction 3.1 Loading Classes 3.2 Free-body Diagrams 3.3 Load Analysis Three-Dimensional Analysis Two-Dimensional Analysis Static Load Analysis 3.4 Two-Dimensional, Static Loading Case Studies Case Study 1A Bicycle Brake Lever Loading Analysis Case Study 2A Hand-Operated Crimping-Tool Loading Analysis Case Study 3A Automobile Scissors-Jack Loading Analysis 3.5 Three-Dimensional, Static Loading Case Study Case Study 4A Bicycle Brake Arm Loading Analysis 94 3.6 Dynamic Loading Case Study Case Study 5A Fourbar Linkage Loading Analysis 3.7 Vibration Loading Natural Frequency Dynamic Forces Case Study 5B Fourbar Linkage Dynamic Loading Measurement 3.8 Impact Loading Energy Method 107 3.9 Beam Loading Shear and Moment Singularity Functions Superposition 3.10 Summary 3.11 References 3.12 Web References 3.13 Bibliography 3.14 Problems CHAPTER 4 STRESS, STRAIN, AND DEFLECTION 4.0 Introduction 4.1 Stress 4.2 Strain 4.3 Principal Stresses 4.4 Plane Stress and Plane Strain Plane Stress Plane Strain 4.5 Mohr's Circles 4.6 Applied Versus Principal Stresses 4.7 Axial Tension x MACHINE DESIGN - An Integrated Approach 4.8 Direct Shear Stress, Bearing Stress, and Tearout Direct Shear Direct Bearing Tearout Failure 4.9 Beams and Bending Stresses Beams in Pure Bending Shear Due to Transverse Loading 4.10 Deflection in Beams Deflection by Singularity Functions Statically Indeterminate Beams 4.11 Castigliano's Method Deflection by Castigliano's Method Finding Redundant Reactions with Castigliano's Method 4.12 Torsion 4.13 Combined Stresses 4.14 Spring Rates 4.15 Stress Concentration Stress Concentration Under Static Loading Stress Concentration Under Dynamic Loading Determining Geometric Stress-Concentration Factors Designing to Avoid Stress Concentrations 4.16 Axial Compression - Columns Slenderness Ratio Short Columns Long Columns End Conditions Intermediate Columns Eccentric Columns 4.17 Stresses in Cylinders Thick-Walled Cylinders Thin-Walled Cylinders 4.18 Case Studies in Static Stress and Deflection Analysis Case Study 1B Bicycle Brake Lever Stress and Deflection Analysis Case Study 2B Crimping-Tool Stress and Deflection Analysis Case Study 3B Automobile Scissors-Jack Stress and Deflection Analysis Case Study 4B Bicycle Brake Arm Stress Analysis 4.19 Summary 4.20 References 4.21 Bibliography 4.22 Problems CHAPTER 5 STATIC FAILURE THEORIES 5.0 Introduction 5.1 Failure of Ductile Materials Under Static Loading The von Mises-Hencky or Distortion-Energy Theory The Maximum Shear-Stress Theory The Maximum Normal-Stress Theory Comparison of Experimental Data with Failure Theories 5.2 Failure of Brittle Materials Under Static Loading Even and Uneven Materials The Coulomb-Mohr Theory The Modified-Mohr Theory 5.3 Fracture Mechanics Fracture-Mechanics Theory Fracture Toughness Kc 5.4 Using The Static Loading Failure Theories 5.5 Case Studies in Static Failure Analysis Case Study 1C Bicycle Brake Lever Failure Analysis Case Study 2C Crimping Tool Failure Analysis Case Study 3C Automobile Scissors-Jack Failure Analysis Case Study 4C Bicycle Brake Arm Factors of Safety 5.6 Summary 5.7 References 5.8 Bibliography 5.9 Problems CHAPTER 6 FATIGUE FAILURE THEORIES 6.0 Introduction History of Fatigue Failure 6.1 Mechanism of Fatigue Failure Crack Initiation Stage Crack Propagation Stage Fracture 6.2 Fatigue-Failure Models Fatigue Regimes The Stress-Life Approach The Strain-Life Approach The LEFM Approach 6.3 Machine-Design Considerations 6.4 Fatigue Loads Rotating Machinery Loading Service Equipment Loading 6.5 Measuring Fatigue Failure Criteria Fully Reversed Stresses Combined Mean and Alternating Stress Fracture-Mechanics Criteria Testing Actual Assemblies 6.6 Estimating Fatigue Failure Criteria Estimating the Theoretical Fatigue Strength Sf' or Endurance Limit Se' Correction Factors to the Theoretical Fatigue Strength Calculating the Corrected Fatigue Strength Sf Creating Estimated S-N Diagrams 6.7 Notches and Stress Concentrations Notch Sensitivity 6.8 Residual Stresses 6.9 Designing for High-Cycle Fatigue 6.10 Designing for Fully Reversed Uniaxial Stresses Design Steps for Fully Reversed Stresses with Uniaxial Loading: 6.11 Designing for Fluctuating Uniaxial Stresses Creating the Modified-Goodman Diagram Applying Stress-Concentration Effects with Fluctuating Stresses Determining the Safety Factor with Fluctuating Stresses Design Steps for Fluctuating Stresses 6.12 Designing for Multiaxial Stresses in Fatigue Frequency and Phase Relationships Fully Reversed Simple Multiaxial Stresses Fluctuating Simple Multiaxial Stresses Complex Multiaxial Stresses 6.13 A General Approach to High-Cycle Fatigue Design 6.14 A Case Study in Fatigue Design Case Study 6 Redesign of a Failed Laybar for a Water-Jet Power Loom 6.15 Summary 6.16 References 6.17 Bibliography 6.18 Problems CHAPTER 7 SURFACE FAILURE 7.0 Introduction 7.1 Surface Geometry 7.2 Mating Surfaces 7.3 Friction Effect of Roughness on Friction Effect of Velocity on Friction Rolling Friction Effect of Lubricant on Friction 7.4 Adhesive Wear The Adhesive-Wear Coefficient 7.5 Abrasive Wear Abrasive Materials Abrasion-Resistant Materials 7.6 Corrosion Wear Corrosion Fatigue Fretting Corrosion 7.7 Surface Fatigue 7.8 Spherical Contact Contact Pressure and Contact Patch in Spherical Contact 438 Static Stress Distributions in Spherical Contact 440 Ch 00 4ed Final 12 7/26/09, 5:23 PM 7.9 Cylindrical Contact Contact Pressure and Contact Patch in Parallel Cylindrical Contact Static Stress Distributions in Parallel Cylindrical Contact 7.10 General Contact Contact Pressure and Contact Patch in General Contact Stress Distributions in General Contact 7.11 Dynamic Contact Stresses Effect of a Sliding Component on Contact Stresses 7.12 Surface Fatigue Failure Models--Dynamic Contact 7.13 Surface Fatigue Strength 7.14 Summary Designing to Avoid Surface Failure 7.15 References 7.16 Problems CHAPTER 8 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 8.0 Introduction Stress and Strain Computation 8.1 Finite Element Method 8.2 Element Types Element Dimension and Degree of Freedom (DOF) Element Order H-Elements Versus P-Elements Element Aspect Ratio 8.3 Meshing Mesh Density Mesh Refinement Convergence 8.4 Boundary Conditions 8.5 Applying Loads 8.6 Testing the Model 8.7 Modal Analysis 8.8 Case Studies Case Study 1D FEA Analysis of a Bicycle Brake Lever Case Study 2D FEA Analysis of a Crimping Tool Case Study 4D FEA Analysis of a Bicycle Brake Arm Case Study 7 FEA Analysis of a Trailer Hitch 8.9 Summary 8.10 References 8.11 Bibliography 8.12 Web Resources 8.13 Problems PART II MACHINE DESIGN CHAPTER 9 DESIGN CASE STUDIES 9.0 Introduction 9.1 Case Study 8a Preliminary Design of a Compressor Drive Train 9.2 Case Study 9a Preliminary Design of a Winch Lift 9.3 Case Study 10a Preliminary Design of a Cam Dynamic Test Fixture 9.4 Summary 9.5 References 9.6 Design Projects CHAPTER 10 SHAFTS, KEYS, AND COUPLINGS 10.0 Introduction 10.1 Shaft Loads 10.2 Attachments and Stress Concentrations 10.3 Shaft Materials 10.4 Shaft Power 10.5 Shaft Loads 10.6 Shaft Stresses 10.7 Shaft Failure in Combined Loading 10.8 Shaft Design General Considerations Design for Fully Reversed Bending and Steady Torsion Design for Fluctuating Bending and Fluctuating Torsion 10.9 Shaft Deflection Shafts as Beams Shafts as Torsion Bars 10.10 Keys and Keyways Parallel Keys Tapered Keys Woodruff Keys Stresses in Keys Key Materials Key Design Stress Concentrations in Keyways 10.11 Splines 10.12 Interference Fits Stresses in Interference Fits Stress Concentration in Interference Fits Fretting Corrosion 10.13 Flywheel Design Energy Variation in a Rotating System Determining the Flywheel Inertia Stresses in Flywheels Failure Criteria 10.14 Critical Speeds of Shafts Lateral Vibration of Shafts and Beams--Rayleigh's Method Shaft Whirl Torsional Vibration Two Disks on a Common Shaft Multiple Disks on a Common Shaft Controlling Torsional Vibrations 10.15 Couplings Rigid Couplings 605 Compliant Couplings 606 10.16 Case Study Case Study 8B Preliminary Design of Shafts for a Compressor Drive Train 10.17 Summary 10.18 References 10.19 Problems CHAPTER 11 BEARINGS AND LUBRICATION 11.0 Introduction 11.1 Lubricants 11.2 Viscosity 11.3 Types of Lubrication Full-Film Lubrication Boundary Lubrication 11.4 Material Combinations in Sliding Bearings 11.5 Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory Petroff's Equation for No-Load Torque Reynolds' Equation for Eccentric Journal Bearings Torque and Power Losses in Journal Bearings 11.6 Design of Hydrodynamic Bearings Design Load Factor--The Ocvirk Number Design Procedures 11.7 Nonconforming Contacts 11.8 Rolling-element bearings Comparison of Rolling and Sliding Bearings Types of Rolling-Element Bearings 11.9 Failure of Rolling-element bearings 11.10 Selection of Rolling-element bearings Basic Dynamic Load Rating C Modified Bearing Life Rating Basic Static Load Rating C0 Combined Radial and Thrust Loads Calculation Procedures 11.11 Bearing Mounting Details 11.12 Special Bearings 11.13 Case Study Case Study 10b Design of Hydrodynamic Bearings for a Cam Test Fixture 11.14 Summary 11.15 References 11.16 Problems CHAPTER 12 SPUR GEARS 12.0 Introduction 12.1 Gear Tooth Theory The Fundamental Law of Gearing The Involute Tooth Form Pressure Angle Gear Mesh Geometry Rack and Pinion Changing Center Distance Backlash Relative Tooth Motion 12.2 Gear Tooth Nomenclature 12.3 Interference and Undercutting Unequal-Addendum Tooth Forms 12.4 Contact Ratio 12.5 Gear Trains Simple Gear Trains Compound Gear Trains Reverted Compound Trains Epicyclic or Planetary Gear Trains 12.6 Gear Manufacturing Forming Gear Teeth Machining Roughing Processes Finishing Processes Gear Quality 12.7 Loading on Spur Gears 12.8 Stresses in Spur Gears Bending Stresses Surface Stresses 12.9 Gear Materials Material Strengths AGMA Bending-Fatigue Strengths for Gear Materials AGMA Surface-Fatigue Strengths for Gear Materials 12.10 Lubrication of Gearing 12.11 Design of Spur Gears 12.12 Case Study Case Study 8C Design of Spur Gears for a Compressor Drive Train 12.13 Summary 12.14 References 12.15 Problems CHAPTER 13 HELICAL, BEVEL, AND WORM GEARS 13.0 Introduction 13.1 Helical Gears Helical Gear Geometry Helical-Gear Forces Virtual Number of Teeth Contact Ratios Stresses in Helical Gears 13.2 Bevel Gears Bevel-Gear Geometry and Nomenclature Bevel-Gear Mounting Forces on Bevel Gears Stresses in Bevel Gears 13.3 Wormsets Materials for Wormsets Lubrication in Wormsets Forces in Wormsets Wormset Geometry Rating Methods A Design Procedure for Wormsets 13.4 Case Study Case Study 9B Design of a Wormset Speed Reducer for a Winch Lift 13.5 Summary 13.6 References 13.7 Problems CHAPTER 14 SPRING DESIGN 14.0 Introduction 14.1 Spring Rate 14.2 Spring Configurations 14.3 Spring Materials Spring Wire Flat Spring Stock 14.4 Helical Compression Springs Spring Lengths End Details Active Coils Spring Index Spring Deflection Spring Rate Stresses in Helical Compression Spring Coils Helical Coil Springs of Nonround Wire Residual Stresses Buckling of Compression Springs Compression-Spring Surge Allowable Strengths for Compression Springs The Torsional-Shear S-N Diagram for Spring Wire The Modified-Goodman Diagram for Spring Wire 14.5 Designing Helical Compression Springs for Static Loading 14.6 Designing Helical Compression Springs for Fatigue Loading 14.7 Helical Extension Springs Active Coils in Extension Springs Spring Rate of Extension Springs Spring Index of Extension Springs Coil Preload in Extension Springs Deflection of Extension Springs Coil Stresses in Extension Springs End Stresses in Extension Springs Surging in Extension Springs Material Strengths for Extension Springs Design of Helical Extension Springs 14.8 Helical Torsion Springs Terminology for Torsion Springs Number of Coils in Torsion Springs Deflection of Torsion Springs Spring Rate of Torsion Springs Coil Closure Coil Stresses in Torsion Springs Material Parameters for Torsion Springs Safety Factors for Torsion Springs Designing Helical Torsion Springs 14.9 Belleville Spring Washers Load-Deflection Function for Belleville Washers Stresses in Belleville Washers Static Loading of Belleville Washers Dynamic Loading Stacking Springs Designing Belleville Springs 14.10 Case Studies Case Study 10C Design of a Return Spring for a Cam-Follower Arm 846 14.11 Summary 14.12 References 14.13 Problems CHAPTER 15 SCREWS AND FASTENERS 15.0 Introduction 15.1 Standard Thread Forms Tensile Stress Area Standard Thread Dimensions 15.2 Power Screws Square, Acme, and Buttress Threads Power Screw Application Power Screw Force and Torque Analysis Friction Coefficients Self-Locking and Back-Driving of Power Screws Screw Efficiency Ball Screws 15.3 Stresses in Threads Axial Stress Shear Stress Torsional Stress 15.4 Types of Screw Fasteners Classification by Intended Use Classification by Thread Type Classification by Head Style Nuts and Washers 15.5 Manufacturing Fasteners 15.6 Strengths of Standard Bolts and Machine Screws 15.7 Preloaded Fasteners in Tension Preloaded Bolts Under Static Loading Preloaded Bolts Under Dynamic Loading 15.8 Determining the Joint Stiffness Factor Joints With Two Plates of the Same Material Joints With Two Plates of Different Materials Gasketed Joints 15.9 Controlling Preload The Turn-of-the-Nut Method Torque-Limited Fasteners Load-Indicating Washers Torsional Stress Due to Torquing of Bolts 15.10 Fasteners in Shear Dowel Pins Centroids of Fastener Groups Determining Shear Loads on Fasteners 15.11 Case Study Designing Headbolts for an Air Compressor Case Study 8D Design of the Headbolts for an Air Compressor 15.12 Summary 15.13 References 15.14 Bibliography 15.15 Problems CHAPTER 16 WELDMENTS 16.1 Welding Processes Types of Welding in Common Use Why Should a Designer Be Concerned with the Welding Process? 16.2 Weld Joints and Weld Types Joint Preparation Weld Specification 16.3 Principles of Weldment Design 16.4 Static Loading of Welds 16.5 Static Strength of Welds Residual Stresses in Welds Direction of Loading Allowable Shear Stress for Statically Loaded Fillet and PJP Welds 16.6 Dynamic Loading of Welds Effect of Mean Stress on Weldment Fatigue Strength Are Correction Factors Needed For Weldment Fatigue Strength? Effect of Weldment Configuration on Fatigue Strength Is There an Endurance Limit for Weldments? Fatigue Failure in Compression Loading? 16.7 Treating a Weld as a Line 16.8 Eccentrically Loaded Weld Patterns 16.9 Design Considerations for Weldments in Machines 16.10 Summary 16.11 References 16.12 Problems CHAPTER 17 CLUTCHES AND BRAKES 17.0 Introduction 17.1 Types of Brakes and Clutches 17.2 Clutch/Brake Selection and Specification 17.3 Clutch and Brake Materials 17.4 Disk Clutches Uniform Pressure Uniform Wear 17.5 Disk Brakes 17.6 Drum Brakes Short-Shoe External Drum Brakes Long-Shoe External Drum Brakes Long-Shoe Internal Drum Brakes 17.7 Summary 17.8 References 17.9 Bibliography 17.10 Problems APPENDIX A MATERIAL PROPERTIES APPENDIX B BEAM TABLES APPENDIX C STRESS- CONCENTRATION FACTORS APPENDIX D ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS INDEX

Author Biography

Robert L. Norton earned undergraduate degrees in both mechanical engineering and industrial technology at Northeastern University and an MS in engineering design at Tufts University. He is a registered professional engineer in Massachusetts. He has extensive industrial experience in engineering design and manufacturing and many years' experience teaching mechanical engineering, engineering design, computer science, and related subjects at Northeastern University, Tufts University, and Worcester Polytechnic Institute. At Polaroid Corporation for 10 years, he designed cameras, related mechanisms, and high-speed automated machinery. He spent three years at Jet Spray Cooler Inc., designing food-handling machinery and products. For five years he helped develop artificial-heart and noninvasive assisted-circulation (counterpulsation) devices at the Tufts New England Medical Center and Boston City Hospital. Since leaving industry to join academia, he has continued as an independent consultant on engineering projects ranging from disposable medical products to high-speed production machinery. He holds 13 U.S. patents. Norton has been on the faculty of Worcester Polytechnic Institute since 1981 and is currently the Milton P. Higgins II Distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Russell P. Searle Distinguished Instructor, Head of the Design Group in that department, and the Director of the Gillette Project Center at WPI. He teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in mechanical engineering with emphasis on design, kinematics, vibrations, and dynamics of machinery. He is the author of numerous technical papers and journal articles covering kinematics, dynamics of machinery, cam design and manufacturing, computers in education, and engineering education and of the texts Design of Machinery, Machine Design: An Integrated Approach and the Cam Design and Manufacturing Handbook. He is a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and a member of the Society of Automotive Engineers. But, since his main interest is in teaching, he is most proud of the fact that, in 2007, he was chosen as U. S. Professor of the Year for the State of Massachusetts by the Council for the Advancement and Support of Education (CASE) and the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, who jointly present the only national awards for teaching excellence given in the United States of America.
Release date Australia
February 1st, 2010
Country of Publication
United States
United States ed of 4th revised ed
Prentice Hall
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