Between 1914 and 1925 Marcus Garvey built his Universal Negro Improvement Association into a mass political organization and became one of the most controversial figures in the history of American race relations. 'Garveyism' drew heavily from the post-World War I crosscurrents of self-determination, anti-colonialism, black nationalism, and pan-Africanism. In this new book in the Library of African-American Biography, Mark Huddle traces the rise of Garvey and shows how his work and ideas became an important catalyst for the black political and cultural awakening of the 1920s. They also inspired millions worldwide to embrace black history and take up the reins of economic power through the establishment of black-owned businesses. Garvey was a major proponent of the back-to-Africa movement and looked to establish his own colonial enterprise in Liberia. The power and enthusiasm of Garvey and his followers, and the intensity of their 'Race First!' ideology, drew criticism from black leaders, especially in the United States, as well as the hostility of American law enforcement-that led finally to Garvey's downfall, deportation, and eclipse. In Marcus Garvey, Mr.
Huddle reintegrates the rise and fall of this charismatic leader into the history of the Harlem Renaissance and the New Negro Movement in the United States, and captures the essential radicalism of this African-American political moment. With 12 black-and-white photographs.
Mark Andrew Huddle teaches history and directs University Honors at St. Bonaventure University. He writes on popular culture and the history of American race relations. He lives in Olean, New York.