This book is part of a broad study about Confucianism and its implications for modernisation of the Confucian regions (covering Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao, Japan, South Korea, North Korea, Vietnam, and Singapore). The purpose of this book is to compare the ethical, social and economical principles advocated by Adam Smith and Confucius. Adam Smith is the most influential thinker in developed economies in modern times. Confucius was the most influential thinker in the Confucian regions before the West became influential in these regions. The book shows that it is important to compare the two great thinkers in order to understand whether or not Westernisation of the Confucian regions is sustainable and whether or not there will be 'clashes of civilisations' between the Confucian regions and the West.