The pineal gland, epiphysis, is a small endocrine gland in the brain. since Descartes it is known organ, but in the past decade it has been the subject of much research and debate in recent years. Written and edited by leading international authorities in the field, it provides an in-depth review of knowledge of the developmental anatomy, imaging, benign and malignant neoplasms of the pineal gland, and their treatment by endoscopic techniques and surgical procedures. Moreover, the biological effects of melatonin, the chief product of pineal gland, and experimental pinealeactomy procedures in small animals are given. As a result, it gives clinicians and investigators current evidences and an outlook to future areas of study and to innovative therapeutic philosophies. This book represents the first comprehensive reference book on the pineal gland and its product melatonin.