Herbert Clark Hoover (10 August 1874-20October 1964), the 31st President of the United States (1929-1933), was a successful mining engineer, the peoples icon, and administrator. He showed the Efficiency Movement component of the Progressive Era, arguing there were other solutions to all social and economic problemsa position that was challenged by the Great Depression that began while he was President. Hoover had a distinguished public service career before becoming president at a time of great religious and social turmoil. He had the misfortune to arrive at the presidency at the same time as the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the outset of the Great Depression and his legacy to this day carries that stigma. He nevertheless is generally ranked in the middle of the pack of effective presidents.