This book aims at providing an overview and in depth analysis of recent developments in stem cell research and therapy. It is composed of recently published review articles that went through peer-review process. Stem cells are the building blocks of the body. They can develop into any of the cells that make up our bodies. Stem cells hold a great deal of hope for the treatment of a broad range of diseases and injuries, spanning from cancers, diabetes, genetic diseases, graft-versus-host disease, eye, heart and liver diseases, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, to neurological diseases and injuries. These include neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, cerebral strokes, and traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries. Therefore, Stem cell research is as important for understanding of the physio- and pathology of the body, as for development and therapy, including the nervous system. Volume V provides an overview and in depth analysis of recent developments in the front of patent applications filed and clinical trials initiated in the field of stem cells, in the aim of introducing stem cell research into therapy.