The author focuses on the critical developments, technological in particular, which are currently posing a threat to the nuclear non-proliferation regime. Crucial technologies affecting nuclear weapon proliferation and their potential ramifications for the nuclear non-proliferation regimes as a whole are examined and potential policy options which could ameliorate or eliminate the resulting dangers are analysed and assessed. Developments and problems raised by the Iraqi and North Korean nuclear programmes receive special attention. In particular, recent efforts in strengthening export control regulations on nuclear and dual-use technology and equipment and in improving nuclear safeguards are described and their impact analysed. Of lasting relevance in the non-proliferation context, this book is of particular relevance in the light of the indefinite extension of the Non-Proliferation Treaty.