Excerpt from The Edinburgh Review or Critical Journal, Vol. 88: For July, 1848 October, 1848 We shall endeavour to explain, without presuming to decide the points at issue. They have engaged the attention of some of the most distinguished scholars and critics of the age; and the works cited above are rather the representations of different classes of opinions among eminent men, than the exposition of judgments in criticism in which the literary world unanimously acquiesces. In the eleventh century, the river Loire was the boundary between two distinct dialects, the langue d'oc and the langue d'oil; both derived from a common parent, the Latin, but each filled with words and idioms from different sources, and different from those of the sister tongue. South of the Loire the langue d'oc prevailed, the language in which the troubadours composed their lays; and north of that river the langue d'oil was used, the language of the trouveres, which has expanded into the modern French. These dialects received their names of langue d'oc and langue d'oi or d'oil, from oc and oui, the affirmatives peculiar to each; and although the latter has now entirely displaced the former as the language of literature and refinement, in the eleventh century the langue d'oc, or Provencal, was more used as the language of poetry and sentiment, than the langue d'oil. The posthumous work of M.Fauriel is the labour of a life devoted to the study of the poetry of the langue d'oc, or Provencal, and of the lives and lays of its troubadours. It is given to the public from notes of a course of lectures delivered by M.Fauriel, on his appointment to a chair of Provencal poetry in the University of Paris. The learned author died before he could repeat his course or revise his opinions: But he claims for his troubadours the priority and pre-eminence, not only over the trouveres, the poets of the cognate tongue, but over the minstrels, mister-sangers, and minne-sangers of the Teutonic people, over the bards of Armorica and Wales, and over the scalds of the Scandinavians. According to M. Fauriel, it was in the country south of the Loire, that the spark, buried in the ashes of a preceding Greek and Roman civilisation, was rekindled, and from its light and heat have been derived the whole poetic fire and imaginative fertility of all European nations north of the Loire, the Celtic, Teutonic, Icelandic, Norman, Saxon, Belgic, and French of the langue d'oil. The bards, scalds, minstrels, meister-sangers, minne-sangers, and trouveres, were, in short, but translators, copyists, or imitators of the Provencal troubadours. M.de la Rue takes a more reasonable view of the subject. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works."