The classical historian Theodor Mommsen (1817-1903) published his monumental History of Rome between 1854 and 1856. His work was received with widespread acclaim by the scholarly community and the reading public. In 1902 Mommsen was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature and acclaimed as 'the greatest living master of the art of historical writing'. Mommsen rejected traditional Enlightenment accounts, which glorified ancient Rome; instead, guided by a new and rigorous criticism of sources, he began the demythologisation of Roman history. In a vivacious and engaging style, Mommsen drew bold parallels between the nineteenth century and classical Rome. Volume 4 covers the establishment of the military monarchy; this English translation, first published in 1866, corresponds to the fourth edition of the German third volume. Part 1 begins with the death of Sulla and ends with the subjugation of the West.