This edition includes the most current MLA citation, documentation, and style guidelines. Now updated with expanded documentation, research, and writing across the curriculum coverage, The Penguin Handbook continues to revolutionize the way handbooks present information. The design and approach of The Penguin Handbook started with ideas and suggestions from real students, and thus it is uniquely successful when it comes to giving students the information they need in a format they will actually use. With unique visual guides and models for writing, research, and documentation, distinctive coverage of writing for different purposes, and Lester Faigley's clear, accessible explanations, The Penguin Handbook has established itself as the best-selling handbook to enter the market in eighteen years. The Third Edition of this extraordinary handbook continues to lead the market with complete new chapters on using database and Web sources, a new visual five-step guide to the documentation process, and updated and expanded documentation coverage.
New "process guides" for writing for different purposes, a new section on writing across the curriculum, and more student model documents than ever make this Third Edition the best resource for writing yet.
Table of Contents
PART 1 Planning, Drafting, and Revising 1 Think as a Writer a Think about the process of communication b Think about how to persuade others c Think about your audience d Think about your credibility e Think about your purpose f Think about the complex demands of writing today 2 Plan and Draft a Think about the expectations of college readers b Establish your goals c Explore your topic d Write a working thesis e Plan a strategy f Compose a draft g Write as a member of a team 3 Compose Paragraphs a Focus your paragraphs b Organize your paragraphs c Make your paragraphs coherent d Consider paragraph length e Link across paragraphs f Write effective beginning and ending paragraphs 4 Rewrite, Edit, and Proofread a Switch from writer to reader b Learn strategies for rewriting c Respond to other writers' drafts d Edit for particular goals e Proofread carefully f Learn to edit the writing of others PART 2 Writing for Different Purposes 5 Read and View with a Critical Eye a Become a critical reader b Read actively c Recognize verbal fallacies d Become a critical viewer e Recognize visual fallacies 6 Write to Analyze a Understand the goal of a rhetorical analysis b Analyze the context and the text c Organize and write a rhetorical analysis d Sample rhetorical analysis e Analyze images and other visual texts 7 Write to Reflect a Find a reflective topic b Identify a focus c Organize and write a reflection d Sample reflective essay 8 Write to Inform a Find an informative topic b Narrow your topic and write a thesis c Organize and write an informative essay d Sample informative essay 9 Write Arguments a Position arguments and proposal arguments b Find an arguable topic c Make an arguable claim d Organize and write a position argument e Sample position argument f Organize and write a proposal argument g Sample proposal arguments PART 3 Writing in the Disciplines 10 Learn to Write in Academic Disciplines a Become an academic writer b What counts as evidence in the disciplines? 11 Write in Specific Genres a Write an essay exam b Write an observation c Write a case study d Write a lab report e Write a letter of application f Write a resume 12 Write about Literature a Become a critical reader of literature b Develop an interpretation c Write a literary analysis d Sample literary analysis PART 4 Designing and Presenting 13 Communicate with Words, Images, and Graphics a Write in multimedia b Think about verbal and visual relationships c Know where images and graphics work best d Know where words work best 14 Design for Print and the Screen a Start with your readers b Design pages c Choose type d Compose images e Edit images f Create tables, charts, and graphs g Design a Web site 15 Design Presentations a Plan a presentation b Design visuals for a presentation c Deliver an effective presentation PART 5 Researching 16 Plan Your Research a Analyze the research task b Find a topic c Determine what kind of research you need d Draft a working thesis e Start a working bibliography 17 Find and Evaluate Sources in Databases a Know the strengths of database sources b Find information in databases c Construct effective database searches d Evaluate database sources e Locate elements of a citation in database sources 18 Find and Evaluate Sources on the Web a Know the strengths and weaknesses of Web sources b Find reliable Web sources c Construct effective Web searches d Find visual sources online e Evaluate Web sources f Locate elements of a citation in Web sources 19 Find and Evaluate Print Sources a Know the strengths of print sources b Find books c Find journal articles d Evaluate print sources e Locate elements of a citation in print sources 20 Plan Field Research a Know what you can obtain from field research b Conduct interviews c Administer surveys d Make observations 21 Incorporate Sources and Avoid Plagiarism a Understand the purposes of sources b Incorporate sources c Avoid plagiarism d Quote sources without plagiarizing e Summarize and paraphrase sources without plagiarizing 22 Write and Revise the Research Project a Revisit your research b Plan your organization c Write a draft d Select and introduce quotations e Review your draft f Revise, revise, revise PART 6 Documenting Five Steps for Documenting Sources 1 Which documentation style do I use? 2 What kind of source am I using? 3 When do I cite sources? 4 How do I cite a source in my paper? 5 How do I cite sources at the end of my paper? 23 MLA Documentation a In-text citations in MLA style b Books in MLA-style works cited c Journals and magazines d Newspapers e Government documents, pamphlets, dissertations, and letters f Library database publications g Online publications h CD-ROM, software, and unedited online sources i Visual sources j Multimedia sources k Informational notes l Sample research paper with MLA documentation 24 APA Documentation a In-text citations in APA style b Books and nonperiodical sources in the APA-style references list c Periodical sources d Online sources e Visual, computer, and multimedia sources f Sample research paper with APA documentation 25 CMS Documentation a Books and nonperiodical sources in CMS-style citations b Periodical sources c Online and computer sources d Multimedia sources e Sample pages with CMS documentation 26 CSE Documentation a In-text references in CSE style b Books and nonperiodical sources in CSE-style references c Periodical sources d Online sources e Sample pages with CSE documentation PART 7 Effective Style and Language 27 Write with Power a Pay attention to verbs b Stay active c Find agents d Vary your sentences e Give your writing personality 28 Write Concisely a Eliminate unnecessary words b Reduce wordy phrases c Simplify tangled sentences 29 Write with Emphasis a Manage emphasis in sentences b Forge links across sentences c Use parallel structure with parallel ideas d Use parallel structure with lists e Use parallel structure in paragraphs 30 Find the Right Words a Be aware of levels of formality b Be aware of denotation and connotation c Use specific language d Use effective figurative language 31 Write to Be Inclusive a Be aware of stereotypes b Be inclusive about gender c Be inclusive about race and ethnicity d Be inclusive about other differences e Recognize international varieties of English PART 8 Understanding Grammar 32 Grammar Basics a Sentence basics b Word classes c Clauses d Phrases e Sentence types 33 Fragments, Run-ons, and Comma Splices a Fragments b Run-on sentences c Comma splices 34 Subject-Verb Agreement a Agreement in the present tense b Singular and plural subjects c Indefinite pronouns as subjects d Collective nouns as subjects e Inverted word order f Amounts, numbers, and pairs 35 Verbs a Basic verb forms b Irregular verbs c Transitive and intransitive verbs d Shifts in tense e Shifts in mood 36 Pronouns a Pronoun case b Pronoun agreement c Problems with pronouns and gender d Vague reference 37 Modifiers a Choose the correct modifier b Place adjectives carefully c Place adverbs carefully d Revise disruptive modifiers e Revise dangling modifiers PART 9 Understanding Punctuation and Mechanics 38 Commas a Commas with introductory elements b Commas with compound clauses c Commas with nonrestrictive modifiers d Commas with items in a series e Commas with coordinate adjectives f Commas with quotations g Commas with dates, numbers, titles, and addresses h Commas to avoid confusion i Unnecessary commas 39 Semicolons and Colons a Semicolons with closely related main clauses b Semicolons together with commas c Colons in sentences d Colons with lists 40 Hyphens a Hyphens with compound modifiers b Hyphens with compound nouns c Hyphens that divide words at the ends of lines d Hyphens for clarity 41 Dashes and Parentheses a Dashes and parentheses versus commas b Dashes and parentheses to set off information c Other punctuation with parentheses d Other punctuation with dashes 42 Apostrophes a Possessives b Contractions and omitted letters c Plurals of letters, symbols, and words referred to as words 43 Quotation Marks a Direct quotations b Titles of short works c Other uses of quotation marks d Misuses of quotation marks e Other punctuation with quotation marks 44 Other Punctuation Marks a Periods b Question marks c Exclamation points d Brackets e Ellipses f Slashes 45 Write with Accurate Spelling a Know the limitations of spelling checkers b Distinguish homonyms c Learn spelling rules 46 Capitalization and Italics a Capital letters b Italics 47 Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Numbers a Abbreviations b Acronyms c Numbers PART 10 If English Is Not Your First Language 48 Write in a Second Language a Understand the demands of writing in a second language b Use your native language as a resource c Use dictionaries d Understand English idioms 49 Nouns, Articles, and Prepositions a Kinds of nouns b Count and noncount nouns c Singular and plural forms d Articles e Prepositions 50 Verbs a Types of verbs b Be verbs c Modal auxiliary verbs d Verbs and infinitives e Verbs and -ing verbals f Conditional sentences g Participial adjectives h Phrasal verbs 51 English Sentence Structure a Subjects b English word order c Placement of modifiers Glossary of Grammatical Terms and Usage Index