Titanium alloys are metallic materials which contain a mixture of titanium and other chemical elements. Such alloys have very high tensile strength and toughness (even at extreme temperatures), light weight, extraordinary corrosion resistance, and ability to withstand extreme temperatures. However, the high cost of both raw materials and processing limit their use to military applications, aircraft, spacecraft, medical devices, connecting rods on expensive sports cars and some premium sports equipment and consumer electronics. This book reviews the recent work on the synthesis of multiphase composites in titanium base alloys to develop high strength and light weight materials with metastable phases. In vitro and in vivo experiments reporting biological performance of Ti-based materials modified by light are also reviewed. Other chapters focus on ultrasonic machining of titanium and its alloys, biomedical applications of laser induced surface modification of titanium alloys, fatigue studies of biomedical titanium alloys, bioactive titanium surfaces, and titanium-base nano-ultrafine eutectic and composites.