Remaining one of the best-selling interdisciplinary composition texts for over twenty-five years, Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum helps readers of all majors and interests learn to write effectively for college. This rhetoric and reader guides students through the essential college-level writing skills of summary, critique, synthesis, and analysis.
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Preface for Instructors A Note to the Student PART: I How to Write Summaries, Critiques, Syntheses, and Analyses Chapter 1: Summary, Paraphrase, and Quotation What Is a Summary? Can a Summary Be Objective? Using the Summary BOX: Where Do We Find Written Summaries? The Reading Process BOX: Critical Reading for Summary How to Write Summaries BOX: Guidelines for Writing Summaries Demonstration: Summary WILLYOUR JOB BE EXPORTED?--Alan S. Blinder Read, Reread, Highlight Divide into Stages of Thought Write a Brief Summary of Each Stage of Thought Write a Thesis: A Brief Summary of the Entire Passage Write the First Draft of the Summary Summary: Combine Thesis Sentence with Brief Section Summaries The Strategy of the Shorter Summary Summary 2: Combine Thesis Sentence, Section Summaries, and Carefully Chosen Details The Strategy of the Longer Summary How Long Should a Summary Be? EXERCISE 1.1 : Individual and Collaborative Summary Practice Summarizing Figures and Tables Bar Graphs Pie Charts EXERCISE 1.2: Summarizing Graphs EXERCISE 1.3: Summarizing Pie Charts Line Graphs EXERCISE 1.4: Summarizing Line Graphs Tables EXERCISE 1.5: Summarizing Tables Paraphrase BOX: How to Write Paraphrases EXERCISE 1.6: Paraphrasing Quotations Choosing Quotations Quoting Memorable Language BOX: When to Quote Quoting Clear and Concise Language Quoting Authoritative Language Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences Quoting Only the Part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need Incorporating the Quotation into the Flow of Your Own Sentence Avoiding Freestanding Quotations EXERCISE 1.7: Incorporating Quotations Using Ellipses Using Brackets to Add or Substitute Words BOX: When to Summarize, Paraphrase, and Quote BOX: Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences EXERCISE 1.8: Using Brackets Avoiding Plagiarism BOX: Rules for Avoiding Plagiarism Chapter 2: Critical Reading and Critique Critical Reading Question: To What Extent Does the Author Succeed in His or Her Purpose? Writing to Inform BOX: Where Do We Find Written Critiques? Evaluating Informative Writing Writing to Persuade EXERCISE 2.1 : Informative and Persuasive Thesis Statements Evaluating Persuasive Writing WE ARE NOT CREATED EQUAL IN EVERYWAY--Joan Ryan EXERCISE 2.2: Critical Reading Practice Persuasive Strategies Logical Argumentation: Avoiding Logical Fallacies BOX: Tone EXERCISE 2.3: Understanding Logical Fallacies Writing to Entertain Question 2: To What Extent Do You Agree with the Author? Identify Points of Agreement and Disagreement EXERCISE 2.4: Exploring Your Viewpoints--in Three Paragraphs Explore the Reasons for Agreement and Disagreement: Evaluate Assumptions Critique BOX: Guidelines for Writing Critiques How to Write Critiques Demonstration: Critique To What Extent Does the Author Succeed in His or Her Purpose? To What Extent Do You Agree with the Author? Evaluate Assumptions MODEL CRITIQUE: A CRITIQUE OF "WE ARE NOT CREATED EQUAL IN EVERY WAY"BY JOAN RYAN--Eric Ralston EXERCISE 2.5: Informal Critique of the Model Critique BOX: Critical Reading for Critique The Strategy of the Critique Chapter 3: Introductions, Theses, and Conclusions Writing Introductions Quotation Historical Review Review of a Controversy From the General to the Specific Anecdote and Illustration: From the Specific to the General Question Statement of Thesis EXERCISE 3.1 : Drafting Introductions Writing a Thesis The Components of a Thesis Making an Assertion Starting with a Working Thesis Using the Thesis to Plan a Structure BOX: How Ambitious Should Your Thesis Be? EXERCISE 3.2: Drafting Thesis Statements Conclusions Statement of the Subject's Significance Call for Further Research Solution/Recommendation Anecdote Quotation Question Speculation EXERCISE 3.3: Drafting Conclusions Chapter 4: Explanatory Synthesis What Is a Synthesis? Purpose BOX: Where Do We Find Written Syntheses? Using Your Sources Types of Syntheses: Explanatory and Argument Explanation: News Article from the New York Times PRIVATE GETS 3 YEARS FOR IRAQPRISON ABUSE--David S. Cloud Argument: Editorial from the Boston Globe MILITARY ABUSE How to Write Syntheses BOX: Guidelines for Writing Syntheses The Explanatory Synthesis Demonstration: Explanatory Synthesis--The Car of the Future? EXERCISE 4.1 : Exploring the Topic THE FUEL SUBSIDYWE NEED--Ricardo Bayon PUTTING THE HINDENBURG TO REST--Jim Motavalli USING FOSSIL FUELS IN ENERGY PROCESS GETS US NOWHERE--Jeremy Rifkin LOTS OF HOT AIR ABOUT HYDROGEN--Joseph J. Romm Consider Your Purpose EXERCISE 4.2: Critical Reading for Synthesis Formulate a Thesis Decide How You Will Use Your Source Material Develop an Organizational Plan Summary Statements Write the Topic Sentences BOX: Organize a Synthesis by Idea, Not by Source Write Your Synthesis Model Explanatory Synthesis (First Draft) THE HYDROGEN FUEL-CELL CAR--Janice Hunte Revise Your Synthesis: Global, Local, and Surface Revisions Revising the First Draft: Highlights Global Local Surface EXERCISE 4.3: Revising the Explanatory Synthesis Model Explanatory Synthesis (Final Draft) THE CAR OF THE FUTURE?--Janice Hunte BOX: Critical Reading for Synthesis Chapter 5: Argument Synthesis What Is an Argument Synthesis? The Elements of Argument: Claim, Support, and Assumption EXERCISE 5.1 : Practicing Claim, Support, and Assumption The Three Appeals of Argument: Logos, Ethos, Pathos Logos EXERCISE 5.2: Using Deductive and Inductive Logic Ethos EXERCISE 5.3: Using Ethos Pathos EXERCISE 5.4: Using Pathos The Limits of Argument Demonstration: Developing an Argument Synthesis--Balancing Privacy and Safety in the Wake of Virginia Tech MASS SHOOTINGS ATVIRGINIA TECH--Report of the Review Panel LAWS LIMIT SCHOOLS EVEN AFTER ALARMS--Jeff Gammage and Stacey Burling PERILOUS PRIVACY ATVIRGINIA TECH--Christian Science Monitor COLLEGES AREWATCHING TROUBLED STUDENTS-- Jeffrey McMurray VIRGINIATECH MASSACRE HAS ALTERED CAMPUS MENTAL HEALTH SYSTEMS--Associated Press THE FAMILY EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS AND PRIVACY ACT EXERCISE 5.5: Critical Reading for Synthesis Consider Your Purpose Making a Claim: Formulate a Thesis Decide How You Will Use Your Source Material Develop an Organizational Plan Formulate an Argument Strategy Draft and Revise Your Synthesis MODEL ARGUMENT SYNTHESIS: BALANCING PRIVACY AND SAFETY IN THEWAKE OFVIRGINIA TECH--David Harrison The Strategy of the Argument Synthesis Developing and Organizing the Support for Your Arguments Summarize, Paraphrase, and Quote Supporting Evidence Provide Various Types of Evidence and Motivational Appeals Use Climactic Order Use Logical or Conventional Order Present and Respond to Counterarguments Use Concession BOX: Developing and Organizing Support for Your Arguments Avoid Common Fallacies in Developing and Using Support The Comparison-and-Contrast Synthesis Organizing Comparison-and-Contrast Syntheses Organizing by Source or Subject Organizing by Criteria EXERCISE 5.6: Comparing and Contrasting A Case for Comparison-and-Contrast: World War I and World War II Comparison-and-Contrast Organized by Criteria MODEL EXAM RESPONSE: KEY SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WORLDWARS I AND II The Strategy of the Exam Response Summary of Synthesis Chapters Chapter 6: Analysis What Is an Analysis? BOX: Where Do We Find Written Analyses? When Your Perspective Guides the Analysis Demonstration: Analysis THE PLUG-IN DRUG--Marie Winn EXERCISE 6.1 : Reading Critically: Winn MODEL ANALYSIS: THE COMING APART OF A DORM SOCIETY-- Edward Peselman EXERCISE 6.2: Reading Critically: Peselman How to Write Analyses Consider Your Purpose Locate an Analytical Principle Formulate a Thesis Part One of the Argument BOX: Guidelines for Writing Analyses Part Two of the Argument Develop an Organizational Plan Turning Key Elements of a Principle or Definition into Questions Developing the Paragraph-by-Paragraph Logic of Your Paper Draft and Revise Your Analysis Write an Analysis, Not a Summary Make Your Analysis Systematic Answer the "So What?" Question Attribute Sources Appropriately BOX: Critical Reading for Analysis Analysis: A Tool for Understanding PART II An Anthology of Readings ECONOMICS Chapter 7: The Changing Landscape of Work in the Twenty-first Century DEFINITIONS: WORK, CAREER, PROFESSION,VOCATION A sociologist, a philosopher, a pope, and others define work and work-related activities as these have evolved over the centuries. FIXED AND FOOTLOOSE: WORK AND IDENTITY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY--Ursula Huws In the new economy, writes a professor of international labor studies, corporations distribute work across the globe and laborers cross continents to find work--twin "upheavals" that are "transforming social identities and structures." NO LONG TERM: NEWWORK AND THE CORROSION OF CHARACTER--Richard Sennett The life of a winner in the new "No long term" economy is chronicled by a sociologist. His conclusion: "The ... behavior which has brought [this man] success is weakening his own character in ways for which there exists no practical remedy." I FEEL SO DAMN LUCKY!--Tom Peters Here are six "minimal survival skills for the 2 st century office worker" in a business environment of "monumental change and gargantuan opportunity," according to the up-beat coauthor of an influential business management book. WORK ANDWORKERS IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY--Richard W. Judy and Carol D'Amico A map that demystifies "the journey America's labor force is now beginning" into an economy that will enrich some but frustrate others--courtesy of the Hudson Institute, a policy research organization. THE UNTOUCHABLES--Thomas Friedman Workers in the new economy had better make themselves "untouchable"--or risk losing their jobs to automation or competitors overseas--warns the Pulitzer Prize winning journalist in this excerpt from his best-selling book The World is Flat. WILLYOUR JOB BE EXPORTED?--Alan S. Blinder There's a critical difference between "personal" and "impersonal" jobs in the service economy, according to this economist and former presidential advisor. Not knowing this difference could cost you a job--no matter how well educated you may be. INTO THE UNKNOWN--The Economist Concerned about losing jobs to globalization? Relax: "What the worriers always forget is that the same changes in production technology that destroy jobs also create new ones." OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK / TOMORROW'S JOBS-- Bureau of Labor Statistics Want to know the outlook for any career field you can think of? Two Web sites created by a division of the United States Department of Labor provide a wealth of information about hundreds of jobs. ARE THEY REALLY READY TOWORK?--Jill Casner-Lotto and Linda Barrington More than four hundred American employers assess the job readiness of new entrants to the workforce.They aren't impressed. ENGINEERING--Richard K. Miller What do prospective engineers need to know? The president of a new college offers advice that extends beyond engineering: Pursue basic knowledge, but master the nontechnical as well. Above all, pursue "those topics that truly fascinate you." LAW--Tom McGrath Prospective lawyers take note: An intense drive for profits is transforming the profession. Many veterans, as well as young associates, don't much like what they see. MEDICINE--Matt Richtel Regular hours. No nighttime calls. No weekend calls. And, of course, a terrific salary. Some doctors have it made. SYNTHESIS ACTIVITIES RESEARCH ACTIVITIES ENVIRONMENT/PUBLIC POLICY Chapter 8: Green Power GLOBALWARMING: BEYOND THE TIPPING POINT--Michael D. Lemonick Why some climate change scientists believe that things may be even worse than we feared. 205 EASYWAYS TO SAVE THE EARTH--Thomas L. Friedman Actually, there are no easy ways to save the earth, declares this Pulitzer Prize- winning New York Times columnist. Rescuing the planet from the effects of climate change will be the biggest industrial task in history THE CLIMATE FOR CHANGE--Al Gore The former vice president issues a challenge to "repower America with a commitment to producing 00 percent of our electricity from carbon-free sources within 0 years." THE DANGEROUS DELUSIONS OF ENERGY INDEPENDENCE--Robert Bryce Americans may love the idea of independence; but energy independence is an idea whose time has not come. "From nearly any standpoint--economic, military, political, or environmental--energy independence makes no sense," declares the author of Gusher of Lies. NATIONAL SECURITY CONSEQUENCES OF U.S. OIL DEPENDENCE--Report of an Independent Task Force "The lack of sustained attention to energy issues is undercutting U.S. foreign policy and U.S. national security," claims a blue ribbon energy task force.The panelists urge the country to reduce its dependence upon foreign oil. BALANCE SHEETS AND THE CLIMATE CRISIS: HOW AMERICAN BUSINESSES CAN HELP--Mindy S. Lubber Can green consciousness be profitable? The head of an organization that works with companies and investors worldwide to address climate change and sustainable economies argues that such efforts can be good for business as well as good for the earth. STOP THE ENERGY INSANITY--Mortimer B. Zuckerman Our special-interest-driven energy policies are betraying "the promise of America," writes a news magazine publisher. We need to both reduce our oil consumption and drill for more oil.We need to both fix our mass transit system and pursue alternative energy technologies. G.M. AT 00: IS ITS FUTURE ELECTRIC?--Don Sherman Will the electric Chevrolet Volt help save both General Motors and the environment? Stay tuned. WHY THE GASOLINE ENGINE ISN'T GOING AWAY ANY TIME SOON--Joseph B. White Those who believe that plug-in hybrids, electric cars, and fuel cell vehicles are the wave of the near future are indulging in wishful thinking. An automotive reporter explains that the internal combustion engine has lasted as long as it has for good reasons. THE CASE FOR AND AGAINST NUCLEAR POWER--Michael Totty Can nuclear power help us reduce our dependence on fossil fuels like coal? Perhaps. But questions about the economics and safety of nuclear power plants have long stalled their construction, notes a Wall Street Journal reporter. THE ISLAND IN THEWIND--Elizabeth Kolbert Some years ago the residents of the Danish island of Samso decided to generate all of the electricity used in their homes and farms from wind power. They succeeded. WIND POWER PUFFERY--H. Sterling Burnett A skeptic argues that the power--and appeal--of wind is considerably less than it appears. STATE SOLAR POWER PLANS ARE AS BIG AS ALL OUTDOORS--Marla Dickerson After the state of California mandated that 20 percent of its electrical power be generated from renewable sources by 20 0, solar projects began transforming the landscape: "Rows of gigantic mirrors covering an area bigger than two football fields have sprouted alongside almond groves near California 99." ENVIRONMENTALISTS AGAINST SOLAR POWER--Peter Maloney You might assume that all environmentalists love solar power .You'd be wrong. SYNTHESIS ACTIVITIES RESEARCH ACTIVITIES SOCIOLOGY Chapter 9: Marriage and Family in America A POP QUIZ ON MARRIAGE; THE RADICAL IDEA OF MARRYING FOR LOVE--Stephanie Coontz A historian of marriage first poses a few questions on how much we really know about the sacred institution. (Expect to be surprised.) Then she investigates when--and why--men and women began to marry for the "radical" idea of love. THE STATE OF OUR UNIONS--David Popenoe and Barbara Dafoe Whitehead Americans are less likely to marry than they were in the past, they marry older, and they divorce more frequently. Is modern marriage in crisis? A DEBATE ON GAY MARRIAGE--Andrew Sullivan/William J. Bennett Why defenders of traditional values should support--or oppose--gay marriage. Two prominent spokespersons on opposite sides debate the issue. THE SATISFACTIONS OF HOUSEWIFERY AND MOTHERHOOD/ PARADISELOST (DOMESTIC DIVISION)--Terry Martin Hekker A housewife celebrates her role as a traditional mother. Almost thirty years and one divorce later, she has a different perspective. A MOTHER'S DAY KISS-OFF--Leslie Bennetts Are we living in an age of gender equality? "Most husbands still view child care and household chores as women's work, even when those women are working full time," argues the author of The Feminine Mistake. UNDERSTANDING MOM--Deborah Tannen A well-known linguist tries to see things from the perspective of her mother, who doesn't understand why her daughter didn't just stay married so she wouldn't have to return to school in pursuit of a professional career. AMERICAN MARRIAGE IN TRANSITION--Andrew J. Cherlin Before the 950s most American marriages were defined by traditional roles in which the husband was the breadwinner and the wife was the homemaker. The next two decades witnessed two shifts that radically redefined the behavior of marital partners. THE MYTH OF CO-PARENTING: HOW ITWAS SUPPOSED TO BE. HOW ITWAS.--Hope Edelman An angry wife writes of the "stalled revolution"--the continued failure of men to share equally in the housework: "It began to make me spitting mad, the way the daily duties of parenting and home ownership started to rest entirely on me." MY PROBLEM WITH HER ANGER--Eric Bartels A husband responds to complaints such as Edelman's: "For women of my generation, anger appears to have replaced the quiet desperation of the past." WILLYOUR MARRIAGE LAST?--Aviva Patz Short of a crystal ball, how can we predict whether marriages will succeed or fail? A researcher who tracked 68 married couples over 3 years believes that he has found the key. THE ARBUS FACTOR--Lore Segal In this poignant short story a man and woman meet for a date at a restaurant, where they ponder the past, the present, and the future. SYNTHESIS ACTIVITIES RESEARCH ACTIVITIES BIOLOGY Chapter: 10 To Sleep A THIRD OF LIFE--Paul Martin "Sleep: a state so familiar yet so strange. It is the single most common form of human behaviour and you will spend a third of your life doing it--25 years or more, all being well." IMPROVING SLEEP--Lawrence Epstein,MD, Editor A Harvard Special Health Report explains the mechanics of sleep and the internal "circadian" clock that governs our patterns of waking and sleeping. AMERICA'S SLEEP-DEPRIVED TEENS NODDING OFF AT SCHOOL, BEHIND THEWHEEL--National Sleep Foundation Findings of a recent poll: "Many of the nation's adolescents are falling asleep in class, arriving late to school, feeling down and driving drowsy because of a lack of sleep that gets worse as they get older." WHENWORLDS COLLIDE: ADOLESCENT NEED FOR SLEEP VERSUS SOCIETAL DEMANDS--Mary A. Carskadon A renowned researcher explains the biological, behavioral, and social forces that converge to make getting a good night's sleep so difficult for so many adolescents. SLEEP DEBT AND THE MORTGAGED MIND--William C. Dement and Christopher Vaughan How much sleep do you owe your internal "sleep bank"? What happens to your brain when you fail to repay your sleep debt? (Hint: The collector demands his due.) THE PITTSBURGHSLEEP QUALITY INDEX--Daniel Buysse How well do you sleep? Take and score this test, a standard tool in the field of sleep research. HOW SLEEP DEBT HURTS COLLEGE STUDENTS--June J. Pilcher and Amy S.Walters So you think you can pull an "all-nighter" and ace an exam the next morning? Think again. ADOLESCENT SLEEP, SCHOOL START TIMES, AND TEEN MOTOR VEHICLE CRASHES-- Fred Danner and Barbara Phillips What happens to the sleep habits and auto crash rates of teenagers when school start times are delayed one hour? Two researchers conducted a study designed to answer this question. POETRY OF SLEEP--John Keats, Lord Byron, Samuel Taylor Coleridge Three Romantic poets offer nonscientific views of sleep. SYNTHESIS ACTIVITIES RESEARCH ACTIVITIES BUSINESS Chapter 11: New and Improved: Six Decades of Advertising ADVERTISING'S FIFTEEN BASIC APPEALS--Jib Fowles "[A]n advertising message contains something primary and primitive, an emotional appeal, that in effect is the thin edge of the wedge, trying to find its way into a mind." Advertisements are designed to appeal to the "unfulfilled urges and motives swirling in the bottom half of our minds." MAKING THE PITCH IN PRINT ADVERTISING--Courtland L. Bovee, John V.Thill, George P. Dovel, Marian Burk Wood Is copywriting an art? If so, it's "art in pursuit of a business goal." Here are the main types of headlines and body copy in the hundreds of ads we see every week. SELLING HAPPINESS: TWO PITCHES FROM MAD MEN A great ad campaign can create nostalgia ("the twinge in your heart more powerful than memory alone") or can convince consumers that deadly products are perfectly safe. A PORTFOLIO OF PRINT ADVERTISEMENTS Presenting, for your consideration, a series of striking magazine advertisements produced over the past six decades. No obligation to buy. A PORTFOLIO OF TV COMMERCIALS From the Energizer Bunny to text-messaging nuns, Madison Avenue has created an often-funny alternative consumer universe that compels viewing.Tune up your YouTube and get ready to laugh. SYNTHESIS ACTIVITIES RESEARCH ACTIVITIES FOLKLORE Chapter: 12 Fairy Tales: A Closer Look at Cinderella WHAT GREAT BOOKS DO FOR CHILDREN--Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. The Pulitzer Prize winning historian and biographer shares his love of the classic tales and explains why he prefers them to "[a]pproved children's books today": these "classic fantasies may well be more realistic than the contemporary morality tales." UNIVERSALITY OF THE FOLKTALE--Stith Thompson A folklorist, exploring the significance of telling tales, finds them to be "far older than history, and ... not bounded by one continent or one civilization." SEVEN VARIANTS OF"CINDERELLA" The much-loved "Cinderella" is found in all parts of the world. More than 700 versions exist; we include seven of them here. CINDERELLA --Charles Perrault ASHPUTTLE --Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm A CHINESE"CINDERELLA"--Tuan Ch'eng-shih THE MAIDEN, THE FROG, AND THE CHIEF'S SON (AN AFRICAN "CINDERELLA") OOCHIGEASKW--THE ROUGH-FACED GIRL (A NATIVE AMERICAN "CINDERELLA") WALT DISNEY'S"CINDERELLA"--Adapted by Campbell Grant CINDERELLA --Anne Sexton THE RISE OF PERRAULT'S"CINDERELLA"--Bonnie Cullen How did Charles Perrault's "Cinderella" emerge as the "standard" version among so many variants? "CINDERELLA": A STORY OF SIBLING RIVALRY AND OEDIPAL CONFLICTS-- Bruno Bettelheim A psychoanalytic reading of "Cinderella": "Every child believes at some period in his life ... that because of his secret wishes, if not also his clandestine actions, he deserves to be degraded, banned from the presence of others, relegated to a netherworld of smut." CINDERELLA: NOT SO MORALLY SUPERIOR--Elisabeth Panttaja This analysis of "Cinderella" finds our heroine a crafty liar who "hides, dissembles, disguises herself, and evades pursuit." She's no better, morally, than her stepsisters. I AM CINDERELLA'S STEPMOTHER AND I KNOW MY RIGHTS--Judith Rossner A novelist lets Cinderella's stepmother speak for herself.The first order of business: Sue the Disney Corporation for grotesquely misrepresenting her and her daughters in the 950 animation classic. THE PRINCESS PARADOX--James Poniewozik Contemporary Cinderella movies "seek to inject some feminist messages into the age-old fantasy. But can you really wear your tiara while spurning it too?" CINDERELLA AND PRINCESS CULTURE--Peggy Orenstein What happens when a feminist's daughter asks to dress like a princess? In this article, writer Peggy Orenstein delves into the merchandising of Cinderella and her sister princesses to discover a robust, $3 billion industry more than 25,000 products strong. SYNTHESIS ACTIVITIES RESEARCH ACTIVITIES PSYCHOLOGY Chapter 13: Obedience to Authority DISOBEDIENCE AS A PSYCHOLOGICAL AND MORAL PROBLEM-- Erich Fromm "If mankind commits suicide," argues this psychologist and philosopher,"it will be because people will obey those who command them to push the deadly buttons; because they will obey the archaic passions of fear, hate, and greed; because they will obey obsolete cliches of State sovereignty and national honor." THE POWER OF SITUATIONS--Lee Ross and Richard E. Nisbett Could you predict whether or not a student walking across campus will stop to help a man slumped in a doorway? Don't bet on it. THE PERILS OF OBEDIENCE--Stanley Milgram A psychologist devises an experiment to test the extent to which people will obey immoral orders. His startling conclusion: "ordinary people ... without any particular hostility on their part, can become agents in a terrible destructive process." REPLICATING MILGRAM: WOULD PEOPLE STILL OBEY TODAY?--Jerry M. Burger Nearly fifty years after Milgram, a researcher replicates the original obedience experiments. Little has changed. OBEDIENCE--Ian Parker The intense reaction to Milgram's experiment made him famous--and ruined his career. GROUP MINDS--Doris Lessing The flattering picture we paint of ourselves as individuals leaves most of us "helpless against all kinds of pressures ... to conform." OPINIONS AND SOCIAL PRESSURE--Solomon E. Asch How powerful is group pressure upon the individual? A landmark experiment demonstrates that most people will deny the evidence of their own eyesight sooner than risk appearing out of step with the majority. THE STANFORD PRISON EXPERIMENT--Philip G. Zimbardo A psychologist at Stanford University designs an experiment in which college-age men take on the roles of guard and prisoner--with surprising results."Can it really be," asks Zimbardo,"that intelligent, educated volunteers could have lost sight of the reality that they were merely acting a part in an elaborate game that would eventually end?" FROM ATONEMENT (A NOVEL)--Ian McEwan Looking for someone to blame for the deaths of their comrades, British soldiers at Dunkirk morph into a deadly mob and surround an RAF airman. SYNTHESIS ACTIVITIES RESEARCH ACTIVITIES Credits Index Quick Indexes