During the last decade, researchers working within the field of biologically active compounds were attracted to finding new compounds, materials and methods that could be used toward the protection of human health and environment, along with the preservation of cultural heritage from various microorganisms, viruses and fungi. The actuality of this problem was stressed at the 41st congress of IUPAC devoted to these and related topics. Many actual aspects on creation of new compounds were discussed, materials and methods capable of more effective solving of the aforementioned problems. The topics that are discussed in this book encompass novel bioactive systems for human and environmental protection and preservation of cultural heritage from the microorganisms' and fungi attacks. Also presented are the results of theoretical and experimental investigations conducted by the experienced scientists from different countries, along with the mechanistic comprehension of their performance under various experimental conditions.