Over 20 years ago, world-wide optical communications was not possible; critical pieces of technology in both computing and communication were just emerging. The new communication technology has fuelled the exponential growth of the phenomenon known as the Internet. The exploding demand for Internet access, telecommunications, and broadband services has led to a push for greater light-wave transmission capacity. Optical fibre networks now carry a large amount of voice and data traffic all over the world. This new and important book gathers the latest research from around the globe on the subject of lasers and optics research with related topics such as: low-energy lasers in orthodontics, semiconductor lasers in endoscopy, cooling and manipulating atoms by semiconductor lasers, and others.