With increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, the extent of effects on the ocean and marine resources is an increasing concern. One aspect of this issue is the potential for seawater to become increasing acidic (i.e., ocean acidification). Scientists are concerned that increasing acidity could result in reduced growth or even death of shell-forming animals as well as disruption of marine food webs and reproductive physiology. Congress is beginning to focus attention on better understanding this issue and determining how it might be addressed. As well as examining the above issues, this book also presents an overview of the causes of hypoxia, the U.S. areas of most concern, federal legislation, and relevant research programs. In addition, this book reviews the history and oil spills in the United States; identifies the legal authorities governing oil spill prevention, response and cleanup; and examines the threats of future oil spills in U.S. coastal waters. This book consists of public documents which have been located, gathered, combined, reformatted, and enhanced with a subject index, selectively edited and bound to provide easy access.