This book looks at the U.S. military's ability to maintain the force levels required for operations in Iraq and Afghanistan which rests on recruiting and retaining service members. Some military analysts and policymakers have expressed concern that the ongoing operations could detrimentally affect both recruiting and retention. The proportion of youth who say that they may join the military increased after September 11, 2001, but according to the Department of Defense (DoD) survey of parents and other adults who influence youths' decisions, a majority in 2005 said that they were less likely to recommend military service because of the war in Iraq. In this study, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) examines the recruiting and retention rates for enlisted personnel within each of the military components, the factors that may influence enlistment and reenlistment, and the implications of changes in each component's success in recruiting and retaining service members. This book consists of public documents which have been located, gathered, combined, reformatted, and enhanced with a subject index, selectively edited and bound to provide easy access.