This book summarises recent progress of newly developed bioengineering technology, such as low-energy ion beam bioengineering (IBBE). Low-energy IBBE has demonstrated powerful impacts and highly potential applications on biology, agriculture, horticulture and life science. Over the years, many shell finite elements have been developed for applications in aerospace, automotive and shipbuilding industries. A review of the development and application of triangular shell finite elements is also included in this book. In addition, the challenge of bioengineering glass-ceramics and ceramics for the fabrication of dental restorations is to fulfil the needs of patients. The authors report on methods for developing materials that show a combination of different properties. New methods to measure some essential properties of tissue-engineered cartilage are examined, as well as the types of gene assembly in terms of metabolic engineering, and the principle of and actual protocol for the Ordered Gene Assembly in B. subtilis (OGAB).
Furthermore, the use of human embryos and foetuses for the advancement of fundamental science and for the production of life-saving vaccines has had a significant historical importance. Cellular therapy using embryonic and fetal tissue has become a very prominent subject in the 21st century in the search of new treatments. This book clarifies some definitions of newly used terms for embryonic and foetal cells, describes world-wide policy on voluntary interruption of pregnancy and elaborates on the history for legal use for both embryonic and foetal issues. Some bioengineering approaches for the treatment of severe pressure ulcers (PU) are examined in this book as well.