The CCIE Routing and Switching certification is the most respected certification in the industry. The successful CCIE candidate must understand a broad range of network technologies that includes OSI model, bridging, LAN switching, IP and IP Routing protocols, multicast, WAN technologies, and performance management. The exam is notoriously difficult and CCIE candidates must first pass a qualifying written exam. The CCIE Routing and Switching Exam Certification Guide, Second Edition covers all of the topics of the written exam. In this updated edition there are content and alignment changes based on the revised exam and networking trends. For example, there is deeper and greater coverage of MPLS, security, and BGP and BGP designs. New chapters covering IPv6 and IS-IS will be included. Also new to this edition are more challenging exam questions to match the difficulty of the actual exam and the CD-ROM is enhanced with a 500-question exam engine from Boson Software. This book also contains all the elements and features of the best-selling Exam Certification Guide series. These elements include specially designed assessment and study features, such as "Do I Know This Already?" quizzes that assess readers' knowledge and help them decide how much time to spend on each section, Foundation Summary sections that highlight essential concepts for quick reference, and End-of-chapter questions to quiz readers.
Table of Contents
Introduction Part I Bridging and LAN Switching Chapter 1 Ethernet Basics "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz Foundation Topics Ethernet Layer 1: Wiring, Speed, and Duplex RJ-45 Pinouts and Category 5 Wiring Auto-negotiation, Speed, and Duplex CSMA/CD Collision Domains and Switch Buffering Basic Switch Port Configuration Ethernet Layer 2: Framing and Addressing Types of Ethernet Addresses Ethernet Address Formats Protocol Types and the 802.3 Length Field Switching and Bridging Logic Foundation Summary Memory Builders Fill in Key Tables from Memory Definitions Further Reading Chapter 2 Virtual LANs and VLAN Trunking "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz Foundation Topics Virtual LANs VLAN Configuration Using VLAN Database Mode to Create VLANs Using Configuration Mode to Put Interfaces into VLANs Using Configuration Mode to Create VLANs Private VLANs VLAN Trunking Protocol VTP Process and Revision Numbers VTP Configuration Normal-Range and Extended-Range VLANs Storing VLAN Configuration VLAN Trunking: ISL and 802.1Q ISL and 802.1Q Concepts ISL and 802.1Q Configuration Allowed, Active, and Pruned VLANs Trunk Configuration Compatibility Configuring Trunking on Routers 802.1Q-in-Q Tunneling Foundation Summary Memory Builders Fill in Key Tables from Memory Definitions Further Reading Chapter 3 Spanning Tree Protocol "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz Foundation Topics 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol Choosing Which Ports Forward: Choosing Root Ports and Designated Ports Electing a Root Switch Determining the Root Port Determining the Designated Port Converging to a New STP Topology Topology Change Notification and Updating the CAM Transitioning from Blocking to Forwarding Per-VLAN Spanning Tree and STP over Trunks STP Configuration and Analysis Optimizing Spanning Tree PortFast, UplinkFast, and BackboneFast PortFast UplinkFast BackboneFast PortFast, UplinkFast, and BackboneFast Configuration PortChannels Load Balancing Across PortChannels PortChannel Discovery and Configuration Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Multiple Spanning Trees: IEEE 802.1s Protecting STP Root Guard and BPDU Guard: Protecting Access Ports UDLD and Loop Guard: Protecting Trunks Foundation Summary Memory Builders Fill in Key Tables from Memory Definitions Further Reading Part II TCP/IP Chapter 4 IP Addressing "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz Foundation Topics IP Addressing and Subnetting IP Addressing and Subnetting Review Subnetting a Classful Network Number Comments on Classless Addressing Subnetting Math Dissecting the Component Parts of an IP Address Finding Subnet Numbers and Valid Range of IP Addresses-Binary Decimal Shortcuts to Find the Subnet Number and Valid Range of IP Addresses Determining All Subnets of a Network-Binary Determining All Subnets of a Network-Decimal VLSM Subnet Allocation Route Summarization Concepts Finding Inclusive Summary Routes-Binary Finding Inclusive Summary Routes-Decimal Finding Exclusive Summary Routes-Binary CIDR, Private Addresses, and NAT Classless Interdomain Routing Private Addressing Network Address Translation Static NAT Dynamic NAT Without PAT Overloading NAT with Port Address Translation Dynamic NAT and PAT Configuration IP Version 6 IPv6 Address Formats Aggregatable Global Unicast Addresses Simple IPv6 Configuration IPv6 Addressing Summary Foundation Summary Memory Builders Fill in Key Tables from Memory Definitions Further Reading Chapter 5 IP Services "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz Foundation Topics ICMP ICMP Unreachable Time Exceeded ICMP Message ICMP Redirect ARP, Proxy ARP, Reverse ARP, BOOTP, and DHCP ARP and Proxy ARP RARP, BOOTP, and DHCP HSRP, VRRP, and GLBP Network Time Protocol Foundation Summary Memory Builders Fill in Key Tables from Memory Definitions Further Reading Chapter 6 TCP/IP Transport and Application Services "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz Foundation Topics TCP and UDP TCP Connections and Port Numbers TCP Error Recovery TCP Dynamic Windowing TCP Header Miscellany TCP/IP Applications Passive and Active Mode FTP Application Authentication and Privacy Network Management and SNMP SNMP Protocol Messages SNMP MIBs SNMP Security Foundation Summary Memory Builders Fill in Key Tables from Memory Definitions Further Reading Part III IP Routing Chapter 7 IP Forwarding (Routing) "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz Foundation Topics IP Forwarding Process Switching, Fast Switching, and Cisco Express Forwarding Building Adjacency Information: ARP and Inverse ARP Frame Relay Inverse ARP Static Configuration of Frame Relay Mapping Information Disabling InARP Classless and Classful Routing Multilayer Switching MLS Logic Using Routed Ports and PortChannels with MLS MLS Configuration Policy Routing Foundation Summary Memory Builders Fill in Key Tables from Memory Definitions Further Reading Chapter 8 RIP Version 2 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz Foundation Topics RIP Version 2 Basics RIP Convergence and Loop Prevention Converged Steady-State Operation Triggered (Flash) Updates and Poisoned Routes RIP Convergence When Routing Updates Cease Convergence Extras RIP Configuration Enabling RIP and the Effects of Autosummarization RIP Authentication Configuration RIP Next-Hop Feature and Split Horizon RIP Offset Lists Route Filtering with Distribute Lists and Prefix Lists Foundation Summary Memory Builders Fill in Key Tables from Memory Definitions Further Reading Chapter 9 EIGRP "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz Foundation Topics EIGRP Basics and Steady-State Operation Hellos, Neighbors, and Adjacencies EIGRP Updates The EIGRP Topology Table EIGRP Convergence Input Events and Local Computation Going Active on a Route Stuck-in-Active Limiting Query Scope EIGRP Configuration EIGRP Configuration Example EIGRP Load Balancing EIGRP Configuration Options That Are Similar to RIP Foundation Summary Memory Builders Fill in Key Tables from Memory Definitions Further Reading Chapter 10 OSPF "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz Foundation Topics OSPF Database Exchange OSPF Router IDs Becoming Neighbors, Exchanging Databases, and Becoming Adjacent Becoming Neighbors: The Hello Process Flooding LSA Headers to Neighbors Requesting, Getting, and Acknowledging LSAs Designated Routers on LANs Designated Router Optimization on LANs DR Election on LANs Designated Routers on WANs and OSPF Network Types Caveats Regarding OSPF Network Types over NBMA Networks Example of OSPF Network Types and NBMA SPF Calculation Steady-State Operation OSPF Design and LSAs OSPF Design Terms LSA Types and Network Types LSA Types 1 and 2 LSA Type 3 and Inter-Area Costs LSA Types 4 and 5, and External Route Types 1 and 2 OSPF Design in Light of LSA Types Stubby Areas OSPF Configuration OSPF Costs and Clearing the OSPF Process Alternatives to the OSPF Network Command OSPF Filtering Filtering Routes Using the distribute-listCommand OSPF ABR LSA Type 3 Filtering Filtering Type 3 LSAs with thearea range Command Virtual Link Configuration Configuring OSPF Authentication OSPF Stub Router Configuration Foundation Summary Memory Builders Fill in Key Tables from Memory Definitions Further Reading Chapter 11 IGP Route Redistribution, Route Summarization, and Default Routing "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz Foundation Topics Route Maps, Prefix Lists, and Administrative Distance Configuring Route Maps with theroute-mapCommand Route Map matchCommands for Route Redistribution Route Map setCommands for Route Redistribution IP Prefix Lists Administrative Distance Route Redistribution The Mechanics of the redistributeCommand Redistribution Using Default Settings Setting Metrics, Metric Types, and Tags Redistributing a Subset of Routes Using a Route Map Mutual Redistribution at Multiple Routers Preventing Suboptimal Routes by Setting the Administrative Distance Preventing Suboptimal Routes by Using Route Tags Using Metrics and Metric Types to Influence Redistributed Routes Route Summarization EIGRP Route Summarization OSPF Route Summarization RIP Route Summarization Default Routes Using Static Routes to 0.0.0.0, with redistribute static Using the default-information originateCommand Using the ip default-networkCommand Using Route Summarization to Create Default Routes Foundation Summary Memory Builders Fill in Key Tables from Memory Definitions Further Reading Chapter 12 Fundamental BGP Operations "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz Foundation Topics Building BGP Neighbor Relationships Internal BGP Neighbors External BGP Neighbors Checks Before Becoming BGP Neighbors BGP Messages and Neighbor States BGP Message Types Purposefully Resetting BGP Peer Connections Building the BGP Table Injecting Routes/Prefixes into the BGP Table The BGP network Command Redistributing from an IGP, Static, or Connected Route The Impact of Auto-Summary on Redistributed Routes and the networkCommand Manual Summaries and the AS_PATH Path Attribute Adding Default Routes to BGP The ORIGIN Path Attribute Advertising BGP Routes to Neighbors The BGP Update Message Determining the Contents of Updates Example: Impact of the Decision Process and NEXT_HOP on BGP Updates Summary of Rules for Routes Advertised in BGP Updates Building the IP Routing Table Adding eBGP Routes to the IP Routing Table Backdoor Routes Adding iBGP Routes to the IP Routing Table Using Sync and Redistributing Routes Disabling Sync and Using BGP on All Routers in an AS Confederations Configuring Confederations Route Reflectors Foundation Summary Memory Builders Fill in Key Tables from Memory Definitions Further Reading Chapter 13 BGP Routing Policies "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz Foundation Topics Route Filtering and Route Summarization Filtering BGP Updates Based on NLRI Route Map Rules for NLRI Filtering Soft Reconfiguration Comparing BGP Prefix Lists, Distribute Lists, and Route Maps Filtering Subnets of a Summary Using the aggregate-addressCommand Filtering BGP Updates by Matching the AS_PATH PA The BGP AS_PATH and AS_PATH Segment Types Using Regular Expressions to Match AS_PATH Example: Matching AS_PATHs Using AS_PATH Filters Matching AS_SET and AS_CONFED_SEQ BGP Path Attributes and the BGP Decision Process Generic Terms and Characteristics of BGP PAs The BGP Decision Process Clarifications of the BGP Decision Process Two Final Tiebreaker Steps in the BGP Decision Process Adding Multiple BGP Routes to the IP Routing Table Mnemonics for Memorizing the Decision Process Configuring BGP Policies Background: BGP PAs and Features Used by Routing Policies Step 0: NEXT_HOP Reachable Step 1: Administrative Weight Step 2: Highest Local Preference (LOCAL_PREF) Step 3: Choose Between Locally Injected Routes Based on ORIGIN PA Step 4: Shortest AS_PATH Removing Private ASNs AS_PATH Prepending and Route Aggregation Step 5: Best ORIGIN PA Step 6: Smallest Multi-Exit Discriminator Configuring MED: Single Adjacent AS Configuring MED: Multiple Adjacent Autonomous Systems The Scope of MED Step 7: Prefer Neighbor Type eBGP over iBGP Step 8: Smallest IGP Metric to the NEXT_HOP The maximum-paths Command and BGP Decision Process Tiebreakers Step 9: Lowest BGP Router ID of Advertising Router (with One Exception) Step 10: Lowest Neighbor ID The BGP maximum-paths Command BGP Communities Matching COMMUNITY with Community Lists Removing COMMUNITY Values Filtering NLRI Using Special COMMUNITY Values Foundation Summary Memory Builders Fill in Key Tables from Memory Definitions Further Reading Part IV Quality of Service Chapter 14 Classification and Marking "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz Foundation Topics Fields That Can Be Marked for QoS Purposes IP Precedence and DSCP Compared DSCP Settings and Terminology The Class Selector PHB and DSCP Values The Assured Forwarding PHB and DSCP Values The Expedited Forwarding PHB and DSCP Values Non-IP Header Marking Fields Ethernet LAN Class of Service WAN Marking Fields Locations for Marking and Matching Cisco Modular QoS CLI The Mechanics of MQC Classification Using Class Maps Using Multiple matchCommands Classification Using NBAR Classification and Marking Tools Class-Based Marking (CB Marking) Configuration CB Marking Example CB Marking of CoS and DSCP Network-Based Application Recognition CB Marking Design Choices Marking Using Policers Policy Routing for Marking Foundation Summary Memory Builders Fill in Key Tables from Memory Definitions Further Reading Chapter 15 Congestion Management and Avoidance "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz Foundation Topics Cisco Router Queuing Concepts Software Queues and Hardware Queues Queuing on Interfaces Versus Subinterfaces and Virtual Circuits Comparing Queuing Tools Queuing Tools: FIFO, PQ, CQ, WFQ, CBWFQ, and LLQ FIFO Queuing Priority Queuing Custom Queuing Weighted Fair Queuing WFQ Scheduler: The Process WFQ Drop Policy, Number of Queues, and Queue Lengths Types of WFQ Queues WFQ Configuration Class-Based WFQ and Low-Latency Queuing CBWFQ Basic Features and Configuration Defining and Limiting CBWFQ Bandwidth Low-Latency Queuing Defining and Limiting LLQ Bandwidth LLQ with More Than One Priority Queue Miscellaneous CBWFQ/LLQ Topics Queuing Summary Weighted Random Early Detection How WRED Weights Packets WRED Configuration LAN Switch Congestion Management and Avoidance Cisco 3550 Switch Egress Queuing Cisco 3550 Congestion Avoidance Comparisons Between Cisco 3550 and 2950 Switches Foundation Summary Memory Builders Fill in Key Tables from Memory Definitions Further Reading Chapter 16 Shaping and Policing "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz Foundation Topics Traffic-Shaping Concepts Shaping Terminology Shaping with an Excess Burst Underlying Mechanics of Shaping Traffic-Shaping Adaptation on Frame Relay Networks Class-Based Shaping Configuration Tuning Shaping for Voice Using LLQ and a Small Tc Configuring Shaping by Bandwidth Percent CB Shaping to a Peak Rate Adaptive Shaping Frame Relay Traffic Shaping Configuration FRTS Configuration Using the traffic-rateCommand Setting FRTS Parameters Explicitly FRTS Configuration Using LLQ FRTS Adaptive Shaping Policing Concepts and Configuration CB Policing Concepts Single-Rate, Two-Color Policing (One Bucket) Single-Rate, Three-Color Policer (Two Buckets) Two-Rate, Three-Color Policer (Two Buckets) Class-Based Policing Configuration Single-Rate, Three-Color Policing of All Traffic Policing a Subset of the Traffic CB Policing Defaults for Bc and Be Configuring Dual-Rate Policing Multi-Action Policing Policing by Percentage Committed Access Rate Foundation Summary Memory Builders Fill in Key Tables from Memory Definitions Further Reading Part V WAN Chapter 17 Synchronous Serial Links and Protocols "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz Foundation Topics Synchronous Serial Links T1 Framing and Encoding T1 Alarms Carrier Detect and Interface Resets Point-to-Point Protocol PPP Link Control Protocol Basic LCP/PPP Configuration Multilink PPP MLP Link Fragmentation and Interleaving PPP Compression PPP Layer 2 Payload Compression Header Compression Foundation Summary Memory Builders Fill in Key Tables from Memory Definitions Further Reading Chapter 18 Frame Relay "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz Foundation Topics Frame Relay Concepts Frame Relay Data Link Connection Identifiers Local Management Interface Frame Relay Headers and Encapsulation Frame Relay Congestion: DE, BECN, and FECN Adaptive Shaping, FECN, and BECN The Discard Eligibility Bit Frame Relay Configuration Frame Relay Configuration Basics Frame Relay Payload Compression Frame Relay Fragmentation Foundation Summary Memory Builders Fill in Key Tables from Memory Definitions Further Reading Part VI IP Multicast Chapter 19 Introduction to IP Multicasting "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz Foundation Topics Why Do You Need Multicasting? Problems with Unicast and Broadcast Methods How Multicasting Provides a Scalable and Manageable Solution Multicast IP Addresses Multicast Address Range and Structure Well-Known Multicast Addresses Multicast Addresses for Permanent Groups Multicast Addresses for Source-Specific Multicast Applications and Protocols Multicast Addresses for GLOP Addressing Multicast Addresses for Private Multicast Domains Multicast Addresses for Transient Groups Summary of Multicast Address Ranges Mapping IP Multicast Addresses to MAC Addresses Managing Distribution of Multicast Traffic with IGMP Joining a Group Internet Group Management Protocol IGMP Version 1 IGMPv1 Host Membership Query Functions IGMPv1 Host Membership Report Functions IGMPv1 Leave Mechanism IGMPv1 Querier IGMP Version 2 IGMPv2 Leave Group and Group-Specific Query Messages IGMPv2 Querier IGMPv1 and IGMPv2 Interoperability IGMPv2 Host and IGMPv1 Routers IGMPv1 Host and IGMPv2 Routers IGMPv1 and IGMPv2 Routers Timers Used in IGMPv1 and IGMPv2 IGMP Version 3 Comparison of IGMPv1, IGMPv2, and IGMPv3 Multicast Listener Discovery Protocol LAN Multicast Optimizations Cisco Group Management Protocol IGMP Snooping Router-Port Group Management Protocol Foundation Summary Memory Builders Fill in Key Tables from Memory Definitions Further Reading References in This Chapter Chapter 20 IP Multicast Routing "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz Foundation Topics Multicast Routing Basics Overview of Multicast Routing Protocols Multicast Forwarding Using Dense Mode Reverse-Path-Forwarding Check Multicast Forwarding Using Sparse Mode Multicast Scoping TTL Scoping Administrative Scoping Dense-Mode Routing Protocols Operation of Protocol Independent Multicast Dense Mode Forming PIM Adjacencies Using PIM Hello Messages Source-Based Distribution Trees Prune Message PIM-DM: Reacting to a Failed Link Rules for Pruning Steady-State Operation and the State Refresh Message Graft Message LAN-Specific Issues with PIM-DM and PIM-SM Prune Override Assert Message Designated Router Summary of PIM-DM Messages Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol Multicast Open Shortest Path First Sparse-Mode Routing Protocols Operation of Protocol Independent Multicast Sparse Mode Similarities Between PIM-DM and PIM-SM Sources Sending Packets to the Rendezvous Point Joining the Shared Tree Completion of the Source Registration Process Shared Distribution Tree Steady-State Operation by Continuing to Send Joins Examining the RP's Multicast Routing Table Shortest-Path Tree Switchover Pruning from the Shared Tree Dynamically Finding RPs and Using Redundant RPs Dynamically Finding the RP Using Auto-RP Dynamically Finding the RP Using BSR Anycast RP with MSDP Summary: Finding the RP Bidirectional PIM Comparison of PIM-DM and PIM-SM Foundation Summary Memory Builders Fill in Key Tables from Memory Definitions Further Reading Part VII Security Chapter 21 Security "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz Foundation Topics Router and Switch Device Security Simple Password Protection for the CLI Better Protection of Enable and Username Passwords User Mode and Privileged Mode AAA Authentication Using a Default Set of Authentication Methods Using Multiple Authentication Methods Groups of AAA Servers Overriding the Defaults for Login Security PPP Security Layer 2 Security Switch Security Best Practices for Unused and User Ports Port Security Dynamic ARP Inspection DHCP Snooping IP Source Guard 802.1X Authentication Using EAP General Layer 2 Security Recommendations Layer 3 Security IP Access Control List Review ACL Rule Summary Wildcard Masks General Layer 3 Security Considerations Smurf Attacks, Directed Broadcasts, and RPF Checks Inappropriate IP Addresses TCP SYN Flood, the Established Bit, and TCP Intercept Foundation Summary Memory Builders Fill in Key Tables from Memory Definitions Further Reading Part VIII Enterprise Wireless Mobility Chapter 22 IEEE 802.11 Fundamentals "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz Foundation Topics 802.11 Physical Layer Standards 802.11a 802.11b 802.11g 802.11n Comparison of 802.11 Standards Wireless System Configuration Infrastructure Mode Configuration Ad Hoc Mode Configuration Wireless Hardware Components Radio Cards Access Points Antennas Repeaters Bridges Routers Radio Frequency Peripherals Infrastructure Mode Operation Scanning Passive Scanning Active Scanning Connecting with a Network Data Transfer Roaming Ad Hoc Mode Operation Wireless Configuration Parameters SSID RF Channels Transmit Power Data Rates Power-Save Mode RTS/CTS Fragmentation RTS/CTS and Fragmentation Summary Wireless Medium Access Wireless Security WEP TKIP AES WPA Open System Authentication Shared Key Authentication Virtual Private Networks Comparing Wireless Security RF Signal Concepts Modulation RF Signal Characteristics Gain Signal-to-Noise Ratio Spread Spectrum Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing FCC Rules RF Interference Multipath Foundation Summary Memory Builders Definitions Further Reading Chapter 23 Wireless LAN Solutions "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz Foundation Topics Cisco Structured Wireless-Aware Network Wireless Domain Services Intrusion Detection System Cisco SWAN Hardware Cisco Wireless LAN Hardware CiscoWorks Wireless LAN Solution Engine Automatic Access Point Configuration Assisted Site Surveys Centralized Firmware Updates Dynamic Grouping VLAN Configuration Multiple Service Set Identifier Support Customizable Thresholds Fault Status Intrusion Detection System Security Policy Monitoring Secure User Interface Air/RF Scanning and Monitoring Self-Healing Functions Reporting, Trending, Planning, and Troubleshooting Applying Wireless LANs in Enterprises Enterprise Security Voice Services Public Wireless LANs Small Office and Home Wireless LANs Foundation Summary Memory Builders Fill in Key Tables from Memory Definitions Further Reading Part IX OSI and Cisco Device Basics Chapter 24 Miscellaneous Networking Theory and Practices "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz Foundation Topics The OSI and TCP/IP Models OSI Layers OSI Layering Concepts and Benefits OSI Terminology OSI Layer Interactions Router Operation Miscellany Cisco IOS Software Boot Sequences and the Configuration Register The Configuration Register The boot system Command CLI Help Features Foundation Summary Memory Builders Fill in Key Tables from Memory Definitions Part X Appendixes Appendix A Answers to the "Do I Know This Already?" Quizzes Appendix B CCIE Routing and Switching Exam Updates: Version 1.0 Appendix C MPLS Appendix D Decimal to Binary Conversion Table Glossary Index
Wendell Odom, CCIE No. 1624, is a senior instructor with Skyline Advanced Technology Services (www.skyline-ats.com), where he teaches the QOS, CCIE, and CCNAA (R) courses. Wendell has worked in the networking arena for 20 years, with jobs in pre- and post-sales technical consulting, teaching, and course development. Jim Geier is the founder of Wireless-Nets, Ltd., and the company's principal consultant. Jim provides expert analysis, design, and planning dealing with the development and deployment of wireless LANs. Naren Mehta, CCIE No. 9797, has more than 8 years of technical instruction experience. He is responsible for designing and delivering Cisco certification preparation courses, with a focus on the CCIE Routing and Switching and Security written and lab exams.