This book has been written against the backdrop of the international financial crisis. The current figures illustrate the negative effects an international economic crisis can have on tourism. The sharp decline in arrivals in the second half of 2008 (-1%) caused the year to end with growth of just 2%, well below the 7% recorded in 2007. The signs are that this situation will continue for some time. The consequences and lessons that may be drawn from the crisis include the following: Tourists will increasingly look to short trips and new market niches will arise, with domestic tourism becoming strategic; The importance of the market, especially as regards quality and price; The need to innovate and, in particular, to incorporate technological advances in productive process; The pivotal role of the public sector. Given the current scenario, the present books sets out competitive strategies and policies which have been drawn up with different types of destination (emerging and mature) as well as different products in mind.