Dental restorative materials are specially fabricated materials, designed for use as dental restorations, which are used to restore tooth structure loss. This is usually resulting from, but is not limited to, dental caries. There are many challenges for the physical properties of the ideal dental restorative material, the properties of which can be divided into four categories: physical properties, biocompatibility, aesthetics and application. Chapters in this book include current research on today's materials and technologies in dental ceramics, biocompatibility of dental materials, and progress in bone and tissue regeneration. The need for simplified adhesive systems for the repair of small cavities in the primary teeth of children is also discussed in this book.