The book represents the proceedings of the conference with the same name, held for two weeks in the Carpathian mountains resort of Sinaia, Romania. It aims to provide the reader with comprehensive reviews on topics in exotic nuclei, nuclear and particle astrophysics, including the most recent results in the field. The articles are written by outstanding professors from prestigious research centers over the world. It treats phenomena from the smallest to largest scales in the Universe, from nuclei to galaxies. On one hand, the study of exotic nuclei is seeking answers about the structure and interaction of unique finite quantum mechanical many-body systems. On another hand, it provides data that have impact on the understanding of the origin of the elements in the Universe. The abundance of the elements are indelible fingerprints of the evolution of the Universe, of the large array of processes and places where nucleosynthesis took place. The High Energy cosmic rays give access to phenomena we cannot reproduce on Earth and places we will never want to visit, but seek to understand. The book collects articles that offer insights on how experiments in the terrestrial nuclear physics laboratories can be combined with observations of the outer space to enlarge our basic knowledge. The volume is dedicated to the 60th anniversary of Professor Robert E. Tribble (Texas A&M University).