In the ever-changing world of complex international rules, laws, and regulations, even seasoned export/import professionals may find themselves in unfamiliar situations. This comprehensive answer book supplies readers with a clear view of the entire process, explaining the ins and outs of shipping and insurance; currency exchange; dealing with banks; contracts; customs; and transportation. Completely revised and including 140 sample contracts, documents, and ready-to-use forms, "Export/Import Procedures and Documentation" contains up-to-the-minute information on new security procedures, the movement to Internet-based documentation, recently enacted Free Trade Agreements, increased compliance measures under the Consumer Products Safety Commission. Written in clear, everyday language and including checklists, questionnaires, and a glossary of international trading terms this trusted resource gives import/export professionals everything they need to get the job done.
Table of Contents
Contents Foreword by Eugene J. Schreiber xi Preface xiii Acknowledgments xv About the Authors xvi Part I: Organizing for Export and Import Operations 1 Chapter 1. Organizing for Export and Import Operations 3 A. Export Department 3 B. Import Department 4 C. Combined Export and Import Departments 4 D. Manuals of Procedures and Documentation 8 E. Record-Keeping Compliance 9 F. Software 14 G. Federal, State, International, and Foreign Law 14 Part II: Exporting: Procedures and Documentation 15 Chapter 2. Exporting: Preliminary Considerations 17 A. Products 17 B. Volume 18 C. Country Market and Product Competitiveness Research 18 D. Identification of Customers: End Users, Distributors, and Sales Agents 19 E. Compliance With Foreign Law 19 F. Export Controls and Licenses 23 G. Patent, Trademark, and Copyright Registrations and Infringements 23 H. Confidentiality and Non-Disclosures Agreements 24 I. Antiboycott Compliance 24 J. Employee Sales Visits to Foreign Countries-Immigration and Customs Compliance 25 K. Utilization of Freight Forwarders and Foreign Customs Brokers 25 L. Export Packing and Labeling (Hazardous Materials) 34 M. Terms of Sale 42 N. Consignments 46 O. Leases 46 P. Marine and Air Casualty Insurance 47 Q. Methods of Transportation; Booking Transportation 48 R. Country of Origin Marking 49 S. Foreign Warehousing and Free Trade Zones 50 T. Export Financing and Payment Insurance 50 U. Tax Incentives 51 V. Export Trading Companies, Export Trade Certificates of Review, and Export Management Companies 51 W. Translation 66 X. Foreign Branch Operations, Subsidiaries, Joint Ventures, and Licensing 66 Y. Electronic Commerce 66 Chapter 3. Exporting: Sales Documentation 69 A. Isolated Sales Transactions 69 B. Ongoing Sales Transactions 90 C. Export Distributor and Sales Agent Agreements 107 D. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Compliance 118 Chapter 4. Exporting: Other Export Documentation 119 A. Freight Forwarder's Power of Attorney 119 B. Shipper's Letters of Instructions 122 C. Commercial Invoices 122 D. Bills of Lading 124 E. VOCCs and NVOCCs 126 F. Packing Lists 132 G. Inspection Certificates 132 H. Marine and Air Casualty Insurance Policies and Certificates 132 I. Dock and Warehouse Receipts 135 J. Consular Invoices 135 K. Certificates of Origin 135 L. Certificates of Free Sale 158 M. Delivery Instructions and Delivery Orders 165 N. Special Customs Invoices 165 O. Shipper's Declarations for Dangerous Goods 165 P. Precursor and Essential Chemical Exports 176 Q. Animal, Plant, and Food Export Certificates 176 R. Drafts for Payment 176 S. Letters of Credit 180 T. Electronic Export Information 181 U. Freight Forwarder's Invoices 194 V. Air Cargo Security and C-TPAT 194 1. Air Cargo Security 194 2. Customs and Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) 196 Chapter 5. Export Controls and Licenses 197 A. Introduction 197 B. Scope of the EAR 198 C. Commerce Control List 198 D. Export Destinations 203 E. Customers, End Users, and End Uses 211 F. Ten General Prohibitions 212 G. License Exemptions and Exceptions 213 H. License Applications and Procedures 215 I. Re-Exports 224 J. Export Documentation and Record-Keeping 224 K. Special Comprehensive Licenses 227 L. Technology, Software, and Technical Assistance Exports 231 M. Validated End-User Program 232 N. Violations and Penalties 233 O. Munitions and Arms Exports 233 Part III: Importing: Procedures and Documentation 249 Chapter 6. Importing: Preliminary Considerations 251 A. Products 251 B. Volume 252 C. Country Sourcing 252 D. Identification of Suppliers 253 E. Compliance With Foreign Law 254 F. U.S. Customs Considerations 256 G. Import Packing and Labeling 275 H. U.S. Commercial Considerations 276 I. Terms of Purchase 277 J. Consignments 279 K. Leases 280 L. Marine and Air Casualty Insurance 280 M. Method of Transportation; Booking Transportation 280 N. Import Financing 281 O. Patent, Trademark, and Copyright Registrations and Infringements 281 P. Confidentiality and Non-Disclosure Agreements 282 Q. Payment 282 R. Translation 283 S. Foreign Branch Operations, Subsidiaries, Joint Ventures, and Licensing 283 T. Electronic Commerce 289 Chapter 7. Importing: Purchase Documentation 293 A. Isolated Purchase Transactions 293 B. Ongoing Purchase Transactions 299 C. Import Distributor and Sales Agent Agreements 313 Chapter 8. Import Process and Documentation 318 A. Importer Security Filing and the 10+2 Program 318 B. Bills of Lading 319 C. Commercial Invoices 319 D. Pro Forma Invoices 321 E. Packing Lists 321 F. Inspection Certificates 321 G. Drafts for Payment 323 H. Arrival Notices 323 I. Pickup and Delivery Orders 323 J. Entry/Immediate Delivery 323 K. Entry Summary 324 L. Other Entries 328 M. Reconciliation 333 N. GSP, ATPA, AGOA-Special Programs 333 O. NAFTA/Other FTA Certificates of Origin 336 P. Specialized Products Import Entry Forms 336 Q. Examination and Detention 338 R. Liquidation Notices 338 S. Notices of Redelivery 350 T. Post Entry Amendment 350 U. Requests for Information 350 V. Notices of Action 354 W. Protests 354 X. Administrative Summons 359 Y. Search Warrants 367 Z. Grand Jury Subpoenas 367 AA. Seizure Notices 367 BB. Prepenalty Notices 367 CC. Penalty Notices 370 DD. Customs Audits 382 EE. Prior Disclosure 385 FF. Court of International Trade 385 GG. Appeals 385 HH. Offers of Compromise 392 II. ITC and Commerce Questionnaires 392 Part IV: Specialized Exporting and Importing 393 Chapter 9. Specialized Exporting and Importing 395 A. Drawback 395 B. Foreign Processing and Assembly Operations 402 C. Plant Construction Contracts 407 D. Barter and Countertrade Transactions 407 Appendix A. Exporter Assistance 409 Appendix B. International Sales Agreement (Export) 415 Appendix C. Federal Register Notice: Mandatory AES 421 Appendix D. Informed Compliance: Reasonable Care 466 Appendix E. Harmonized Tariff Schedule (Excerpts) 482 Appendix F. International Purchase Agreement (Import) 496 Appendix G. Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) 502 Appendix H. Guidance on Internet Purchases 544 Appendix I. Regulatory Audit Questionnaires 553 Appendix J. Export/Import-Related Websites 560 Appendix K. Steel License Information 566 Glossary of International Trade Terms 588 Index 614
Thomas E. Johnson is a former partner in the law firms of Baker & McKenzie and Sandler, Travis & Rosenberg P.A. He has been appointed five times by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce to the Illinois District Export Council, and is a past president of the International Trade Club of Chicago. Donna L. Bade is the managing partner of the Chicago office of Sandler, Travis & Rosenberg, P.A, an international trade law firm. She has taught Import and Export Trade Law at The John Marshall Law School and is a speaker on issues related to importing and exporting.