Down syndrome is a condition in which extra genetic material causes delays in the way a child develops, both mentally and physically. It affects about 1 in every 800 babies. The physical features and medical problems associated with Down syndrome can vary widely from child to child. In most cases, the child has short and squat body, big neck, macroglossia, hypotonia and handheld fold. While some kids with DS need a lot of medical attention, others lead healthy lives. Though Down syndrome cannot be prevented, it can be detected before a child is born. Furthermore, while some kids with DS have no significant health problems, others may experience a host of medical issues that require extra care. For example, almost half of all children born with DS will have a congenital heart defect. Kids with Down syndrome are also at an increased risk of developing pulmonary hypertension. This book examines this genetic disorder, the detection of possible causes and treatment options for the complications of the disease.