Nutritional biochemistry is one of the academic foundations that make up nutritional sciences, a discipline that encompasses the knowledge of nutrients and other food components with emphasis on their range of function and influence on mammalian physiology, health, and behaviour. This book introduces recent findings concerning the biochemical and molecular actions of food factors on bone metabolism in vitro and their preventive effects on osteoporosis in animals in vivo and human subjects. The extraction methods applied in food processing are also examined, from fundamental theory to optimum practical application through using the relevant equipment, solvents, and the appropriate methods of process optimisation. Discussed also is the nutritional value of the proteins and lipids recovered with isoelectric processing and their potential use in food products for human consumption as well as animal feeds. Additionally, other chapters in this book review various extracts and secondary metabolites from foods of plant origin with no inhibitory activity that can be focused for drug development programs.