Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. It occurs when cells of the prostate mutate and begin to multiply out of control. These cells may spread (metastasize) from the prostate to other parts of the body, especially the bones and lymph nodes. Prostate cancer may cause pain, difficulty in urinating, problems during sexual intercourse, erectile dysfunction and other symptoms. However those symptoms are present only in an advanced stage of the disease. Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy diagnosed in men and is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among males. Androgens play a major role in the development of prostate cancer since males castrated during childhood do not develop this disease. Another factor known to be involved in prostate cancer development is age, since the majority of prostate cancer patients are ageing men. Rates of detection of prostate cancers vary widely across the world with South and East Asia detecting less frequently than in Europe, and especially the United States. This new important handbook gathers the latest research from around the globe in this field.