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Introduction to Educational Research

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Introduction to Educational Research

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Introduction to Educational Research by Craig A. Mertler
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Description

This non-technically written, hands-on introductory text is supported by up-to-date technology to augment students' comprehension and interpretation of both qualitative and quantitative techniques in educational research methods. Introduction to Educational Research, Sixth Edition, guides learners through eight research methods to help plan and compose their first educational research project. Through chapter contents and in-text exercises, readers simultaneously learn how to prepare a research plan, gather and analyze data, address research questions and hypotheses, and organize a report of their projects. In keeping with the main purpose of helping students clearly understand and apply research concepts, the language of the text is non-technical and there are are many pedagogical features throughout the text.

Table of Contents

Preface PART ONE: Orientation to Educational Research CHAPTER 1 Educational Research: Its Nature and Rules of Operation Preview Targeted Learnings Chapter Information Organizers An example: New Questions about Elmwood's Schools Seeking Answers to Questions The Scientific Method Research and the Scientific Method The Meaning of Research The Process of Educational Research Research and Educational Research Rules of Operation in Educational Research Legal Principles Ethical Principles Philosophical Principles Procedural Principles Why Study Educational Research? Educators as Researchers DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY Guiding Principles of Research Chapter Summary List of Important Terms Your Current Status Activities for Thought and Discussion Answers to Chapter exercises References and Recommended Readings CHAPTER 2 Types of Educational Research and Corresponding Sources of Data Preview Targeted Learnings Types of Educational Research Types of Research Categorized by Usefulness Types of Research Differentiated by Tradition Types of Research Based on Practicality Primary and Secondary Sources of Research Data Specific Sources of Research Data Procedures and Tools Used in Collecting Data Qualities Required in Research Data Authenticity and Believability of Qualitative Data Validity and Reliability of Quantitative Data Treatment and Presentation of Data Additional Terminology Related to Data APPLYING TECHNOLOGY More about Variables and Questions Participants, Samples, and Populations DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY Type of Research Chapter Summary List of Important Terms Your Current Status Activities for Thought and Discussion Answers to Chapter Exercises References and Recommended Readings Part Two: Preliminary Skills Needed for Conducting Research CHAPTER 3 Selecting, Refining, and Proposing a Topic for Research Preview Targeted Learnings Where to Find Good Research Topics Topics for Teachers, Counselors, and Other Educators Topics for Administrators Topics for Other Educators Preliminary Considerations in Selecting Topics APPLYING TECHNOLOGY Sources for Research Topics Refining the Research Topic Some Necessary Terminology Variables and Educational Research Continuous, Discrete, and Dichotomous Variables Independent and Dependent Variables Regulating the Size of Research Topics Foreseeing the Research Report Format The Value of Conventional Procedures and Reports Refining the Topic: An Illustrative Case Jan's Concern about Students' Entry Age to Kindergarten Preparing a Research Proposal DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY Research Topic Refinement Chapter Summary 60 List of Important Terms 60 Your Current Status 61 Activities for Thought and Discussion 61 Answers to Chapter Exercises 61 References and Recommended Readings 62 CHAPTER 4 Locating Published Research Preview Targeted Learnings Using the Research Library Secondary Sources in the Library Locating Secondary Sources Primary Sources in the Library Specific Directories of Primary References Locating Primary Sources APPLYING TECHNOLOGY Electronic Journals APPLYING TECHNOLOGY Searching ERIC Online Not Just for Conducting Research--Valuable Sources for Professional Development DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY Locating Published Research Chapter Summary List of Important Terms Your Current Status Activities for Thought and Discussion Answers to Chapter exercises References and Recommended Readings CHAPTER 5 Interpreting and Summarizing Published Research Preview Targeted Learnings ReadingResearch Reports Summarizing the Reports Interpreting the Statistical Information You Encounter Status Reports APPLYING TECHNOLOGY Writing a Review of Literature Review of Terminology Used in Status Reports Comparison Reports Review of Terminology Used in Comparison Reports Correlational Reports Review of Terminology Used in Correlational Reports The Concept of Significance DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY Reviewing Published Research Chapter Summary List of Important Terms Your Current Status Activities for Thought and Discussion Answers to Chapter Exercises References and Recommended Readings PART THREE: Conducting Your Own Research Project CHAPTER 6 Procedures and Tools for Gathering Data Preview Targeted Learnings Types of Research and Their Typical Foci Types of Data Needed Sources of Data for Various Types of Research Samples and Their Selection Are Samples Necessary in Research? Can Small Samples Represent Large Populations? Probability Sampling Non probability Sampling APPLYING TECHNOLOGY Probability and Nonprobability Sampling Samples and Their Selection Size of Samples Relationships among Research Focus, Data, Source, and Sample Validity and Reliability in Data Collection Validity of Data Determining Validity of Test Data Determining Validity of Non-Test Data Reliability of Data Determining Reliability of Test Data Determining Reliability of N on Test Data Relationship between Validity and Reliability Procedures in Data Collection Notation Description Analysis Questioning Testing APPLYING TECHNOLOGY Survey Construction APPLYING TECHNOLOGY Searchable Online Test Locators Measurement Relationships between Types of Research and Data Collection A Composite of Research Types and Data Collection Procedures Data Collection Profiles DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY Data Collection Decisions Chapter Summary List of Important Terms Your Current Status Activities for Thought and Discussion Answers to Chapter Exercises References and Recommended Readings CHAPTER 7 Analyzing Research Data and Presenting Findings Preview Targeted Learnings Qualitative Data and Quantitative Data An Example of Qualitative Analysis An Example of Quantitative Analysis Analyzing Ethnographic Data Cautions and Reminders in Qualitative Data Analysis Analyzing Quantitative Data APPLYING TECHNOLOGY Software Programs for Analyzing Qualitative Data Populations and Parameters; Samples and Statistics What Statistics Are Used For Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics APPLYING TECHNOLOGY More about Statistics Cautions in Using Statistics APPLYING TECHNOLOGY Software Programs for Analyzing Quantitative Data Presenting Your Findings APPLYING TECHNOLOGY Selecting an Appropriate Statistical Test DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY Statistical Analysis Decisions Chapter Summary List of Important Terms Your Current Status Activities for Thought and Discussion Answers to Chapter exercises References and Recommended Readings CHAPTER 8 Designing a Research Project Preview Targeted Learnings How Planning Should Be Done The Approach to Planning Advocated in This Book Tasks to Be Accomplished When Planning Research Task 1. State the Title, Topic, Problem, and Questions and/or Hypotheses Task 2. Identify Keywords or Desciptors and Outline the Library Search for Related Information Task 3. Identify Needed Data and Sources Task 4. List the Steps You Will Need to Carry Out to Complete the Study Task 5. Specify the Procedures and Tools You Will Employ in Collecting Data Task 6, Foresee How Data Can Best Be Analyzed and Interpreted Task 7. Anticipate the Appropriate Report Format for Your Research APPLYING TECHNOLOGY More Guidelines for Reports Illustrative Example of Planning a Research Project Topic and Problem Examination of the Literature Required Data and Data Sources Appraisal of Holly's Plan An example of a Research Proposal DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY Planning for Your Research Chapter Summary List of Important Terms Your Current Status Activities for Thought and Discussion References and Recommended Readings CHAPTER 9 Preparing a Research Report References and Recommended Readings Preview Targeted Learnings Conventions in Research and Reporting Style Guides Conventions of Style Title Person and Voice Tense Tentative versus Definitive Statements Simplicity of Language Consistency Conventions of Format Introduction Review of Related Literature Procedures or Method Findings or Results Conclusions or Discussion Front and Back Material A Composite Outline of Format Conventions Sample Pages For Research Papers and Journal Articles For Masters' Theses For a Thesis That Reports Action Research Thesis Format for Other Types of Research DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY Preparing to Write Your Report Chapter Summary List of Important Terms Your Current Status Activities for Thought and Discussion Answers to Chapter Exercises PART FOUR: Procedures and Exemplars of Research as Differentiated by Tradition CHAPTER 10 Qualitative Research Methods Preview Targeted Learnings Characteristics of Qualitative Research The Qualitative Research Process Qualitative Data Collection Techniques Characteristics of Qualitative Data: Accuracy, Credibility, and Dependibility Qualitative Data Analysis Techniques Approaches to Qualitative Research The Nature of Ethnographic Research Topics in Ethnographic Research Procedures in Ethnographic Research The Richness of Ethnographic Research Strengths and Concerns in ethnographic Research An Example of Ethnographic Research Organizing for Ethnographic Research The Nature of Narrative Research Procedures in Narrative Research Strengths and Concerns in Narrative Research An Example of Narrative Research APPLYING TECHNOLOGY More about Qualitative Research Chapter Summary List of Important Terms Activities for Thought and Discussion Answers to Chapter Exercises References and Recommended Readings CHAPTER 11 Survey Research Preview Targeted Learnings Characteristics of Survey Research Types of Surveys Types of Survey Questions Survey Design Considerations The Survey Research Process APPLYING TECHNOLOGY More about Survey Research Strengths and Concerns in Survey Research An Example of Survey Research Chapter Summary List of Important Terms Activities for Thought and Discussion Answers to Chapter Exercises References and Recommended Readings CHAPTER 12 Nonexperimental Quantitative Research Preview Targeted Learnings Weather and the Process of Education Correlations The Nature of Correlational Research Cautions Concerning Cause and Effect Topics for Correlational Research Hypotheses and Questions in Correlational Research Correlational Research Design Data Sources and Collection What Can Be Correlated and How Product-Moment Correlation Biserial Correlation and Point-Biserial Correlation Phi Correlation and Tetrachoric Correlation Correlations from Rankings Multivariate Correlations Partial Correlation Multiple Regression Discriminant Analysis Factor Analysis An Example of Correlational Research Organizing for Correlational Research Selecting the Variables Stating Questions or Hypotheses Assessing and Quantifying the Variables Selecting a Sample Collecting Data Analyzing the Data APPLYING TECHNOLOGY More about Correlational Research Organizing for Correlational Research Causal-Comparative Research The Nature of Causal-Comparative Research Conducting Causal-Comparative Research An Example of Causal-Comparative Research Chapter Summary List of Important Terms Activities for Thought and Discussion Answers to Chapter Exercises References and Recommended Readings CHAPTER 13 Experimental, Quasi-Experimental, and Single-Subject Designs Targeted Learnings The Search for Causation Experimental Research Quasi-Experimental Research Fundamentals of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research Cause and effect Random Selection and Assignment Use of Experimental Research Experimental Designs Quasi-experimental Designs The Commonality of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs Single-Subject Designs Threats to Internal and External Validity An Example of Quasi-Experimental Research APPLYING TECHNOLOGY More about Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research Designs An Example of Single-Subject Research Chapter Summary List of Important Terms Activities for Thought and Discussion Answers to Chapter Exercises References and Recommended Readings CHAPTER 14 Mixed-Methods Research Designs Preview Targeted Learnings Characteristics of Mixed-Methods Research Mixed-Methods Research Designs The Mixed-Methods Research Process Strengths and Concerns in Mixed-Methods Research APPLYING TECHNOLOGY More about Mixed-Methods Research An Example of Mixed-Methods Research Chapter Summary List of Important Terms Activities for Thought and Discussion Answers to Chapter Exercise References and Recommended Readings PART FIVE: Procedures and Exemplars of Research as Differentiated by Practicality CHAPTER 15 Action Research Preview Targeted Learnings Action Research The Importance of Action Research Characteristics of Action Research An Example The Action Research Process An Example of Action Research Review of Action Research Organizing for Action Research Strengths and Cautions in Action Research APPLYING TECHNOLOGY: More about Action Research Chapter Summary Activities for Thought and Discussion Answers to Chapter Exercise References and Recommended Readings CHAPTER 16 Evaluation Research Preview Targeted Learnings Evaluation Research Types of Evaluation Research Evaluating Methods, Materials, and Programs An Example of Evaluation Research: "insert title of new article" Organizing for Evaluation Research Chapter Summary Activities for Thought and Discussion Answers to Chapter Exercise References and Recommended Readings APPENDIX A Overview of Statistical Concepts and Procedures

Author Biography

Craig A. Mertler is currently a Professor and Director of the Doctoral Program in School Improvement in the College of Education at the University of West Georgia. He teaches doctoral courses focused on the application of action research to promote school improvement and reform, and also teaches quantitative research methods, introductory statistical analysis, multivariate statistical analysis, and educational assessment methods. He is the author of 5 books, 2 invited book chapters, 15 refereed journal articles, 2 instructors' manuals, and numerous nonrefereed articles and manuscripts. He has also presented numerous research papers at professional meetings around the country, as well as internationally. He conducts workshops for inservice educational professionals on classroom-based action research and on the broad topic of classroom assessment. His primary research interests include classroom-based action research, professional learning communities, and assessment practices of classroom teachers. Before teaching and researching at the university level, he taught high school biology and earth science, and also coached track and volleyball. In his leisure time, he enjoys travelling with his family and playing golf.
Release date Australia
January 3rd, 2010
Country of Publication
United States
Edition
United States ed of 7th revised ed
Illustrations
black & white tables, figures
Imprint
Allyn & Bacon
Pages
432
Dimensions
216x279x15
ISBN-13
9780137013449
Product ID
3809104

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