Emphasizing statistical concepts used in medicine, the interpretation of methods, and applications, Medical Biostatistics, Second Edition shows how biostatistical methods are important tools in managing uncertainties in medicine and the health sciences. With coverage ranging from elementary topics, such as mean and standard deviation, to advanced approaches, such as logistic regression and multivariate methods, this edition is even more far-reaching in scope than its predecessor.
New to the Second Edition Full chapters on clinical trials, observational studies, laboratory experiments, survival analysis, and logistic regression A new chapter on clinimetrics and evidence-based medicine Expanded discussions on epistemic uncertainties, crossover designs, equivalence trials and studies, hazard functions, and the log-rank test The introduction of research evidence, multilevel regression, classification, and regression trees at an elementary level Sample size formulas for relative risk, odds ratio, and survival studies Numerous additional examples from contemporary medical literature Numbered steps for the many procedures and remarks Requiring only high school algebra, this text enables a solid understanding of the statistical concepts required to critically examine medical literature, scientifically plan and carry out medical investigations, and meaningfully analyze data.
Table of Contents
Preface Medical Uncertainties Uncertainties in Health and Disease Uncertainties in Medical Research Uncertainties in Health Planning and Evaluation Management of Uncertainties: About This Book Basics of Medical Studies Study Protocol Types of Medical Studies Data Collection Nonsampling Errors and Other Biases Sampling Methods Sampling Concepts Common Methods of Random Sampling Some Other Methods of Sampling Some Examples of Sample Surveys Designs for Observational Studies Prospective Studies Retrospective Studies Cross-Sectional Studies Comparative Performance of Prospective, Retrospective, and Cross-Sectional Studies Medical Experiments Basic Features of Medical Experiments Design of Experiments Choice and Sampling of Units for Laboratory Experiments Clinical Trials Therapeutic Trials Issues in Clinical Trials Trials Other Than for Therapeutics Numerical Methods for Representing Variation Types of Measurement Tabular Presentation Rates and Ratios Central and Other Locations Measuring Variability Presentation of Variation by Figures Graphs for Frequency Distribution Pie, Bar, and Line Diagrams Special Diagrams in Health and Medicine Charts and Maps Some Quantitative Aspects of Medicine Some Epidemiological Measures of Health and Disease Reference Values Measurement of Uncertainty: Probability Validity of Medical Tests Clinimetrics and Evidence-Based Medicine Indicators, Indexes, and Scores Clinimetrics Evidence-Based Medicine Measurement of Community Health Indicators of Mortality Measures of Morbidity Indicators of Social and Mental Health Composite Indexes of Health Confidence Intervals, Principles of Tests of Significance, and Sample Size Sampling Distributions Confidence Intervals P-Values and Statistical Significance An Initial Debate on Statistical Significance Sample Size Determination in Some Cases Inference from Proportions One Qualitative Variable Proportions in 2 Ao 2 Tables Analysis of R Ao C Tables (Large n) Three-Way Tables Relative Risk and Odds Ratio Relative and Attributable Risks (Large n) Odds Ratio Stratified Analysis and Sample Size Inference from Means Comparison of Means in One and Two Groups (Gaussian Conditions): Student's t-Test Comparison of Means in Three or More Groups (Gaussian Conditions): ANOVA F-Test Non-Gaussian Conditions: Nonparametric Tests for Location When Significant Is Not Significant Relationships: Quantitative Data Some General Features of a Regression Setup Linear Regression Models Some Issues in Regression Measuring the Strength of a Quantitative Relationship Assessment of Agreement Relationships: Qualitative Dependent Binary Dependent: Logistic Regression (Large n) Inference from Logistic Coefficients Issues in Logistic Regression Some Models for Qualitative Data Strength of Relationship in Quantitative Variables Survival Analysis Life Expectancy Analysis of Survival Data Issues in Survival Analysis Simultaneous Consideration of Several Variables Scope of Multivariate Methods Dependent and Independent Sets of Variables Identification of Structure in the Observations Quality Considerations Statistical Quality Control in Medical Care Quality of Measurements Quality of Statistical Models: Robustness Quality of Data Statistical Fallacies Problems with the Sample Errors in Presentation of Findings Inadequate Analysis Misinterpretation Appendix 1: Statistical Software General Purpose Statistical Software Special Purpose Statistical Software Appendix 2: Some Statistical Tables Index References appear at the end of each chapter.