Over the past-decade or so, studies have revealed and confirmed that new nerve cells are generated in the adult brain of mammals, including humans. These new nerve cells originate from cells, referred as neural stem cells. Neural stem cells have the capacity to generate nerve cells and repair the brain. Hence, contrary to a long-held dogma, neural stem cells reside in the adult brain and therefore the adult brain has the capacity of, and may be amenable to, repair. Adult neurogenesis and neural stem cells offer new avenues and opportunities for the treatment and cure of a broad range of neurological diseases, disorders and injuries. Neural stem cells and cellular therapy aims at providing an overview and in depth analysis of recent developments in neuralstem cell research and therapy. This book is composed of recently published review articles that went through the peer-review process.