In the United States, most non-prescription drugs are available over-the-counter (OTC) in pharmacies and other stores. Experts have suggested that drug availability could be increased by establishing an additional class of non-prescription drugs that would be held behind the counter (BTC) but would require the intervention of a pharmacist before being dispensed; a similar class of drugs exists in many other countries. Although the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not developed a detailed proposal for a BTC drug class, it held a public meeting to explore the public health implications of BTC drug availability. This book explores the public health benefits of behind the counter availability of certain drugs without a prescription. In particular, the debate whether behind the counter may improve patient access to safe and effective drug products is discussed. This book looks at the pharmacist, infrastructure, and cost-related issues which would have to be addressed before a BTC drug class could be established in the United States.